Lecture 10 Immune System-2007

Lecture 10 Immune System-2007 - Inflammatory and Immune...

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Inflammatory and Immune Disorders Lecture 10 Drugs for Fungal, Viral, & Parasitic Diseases Drugs for Neoplasia
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Antifungals Drugs for Fungal, Viral and Parasitic Diseases
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Antifungals There are 200,000 known species of fungi Fewer than 200 are known to infect humans 90% of fungal infections are caused by just a few dozen species
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Antifungals Fungi More complex than bacteria Can be single or multicellular organisms Fungi grow on skin and mucosal surfaces Human body is normally resistant to infection if immune system is healthy Those with suppressed immune systems (cancer, HIV) can get fungal
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Antifungals Systemic fungal infections Very serious and can be fatal Drug therapy can be prolonged Amphotericin B (Fungizone) Broad spectrum antifungal activity IV administration, must premedicate due to SE SE Flushing, fever/chills, N/V, decreased BP Considered highly toxic Nephrotoxicity & electrolyte imbalance
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Antifungals Newer agents - for serious fungal infections Voriconazole (Vfend) Indicated for several fungi including aspirgillosis Given PO and IV May also need to premedicate to avoid infusion reaction (fever, chills, ect. .) tylenol and benedryl Ketoconazole (Nizoral) Used for systemic candidiasis
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Antifungals Oral (topical) infections Less serious, but also need prolonged tx Fluconazole (Diflucan) Given PO Used for oral thrush (candidiasis) or vaginal yeast infections Very well tolerated Therapy is for minimum of 3 weeks Commonly used in immune compromised pts
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Antivirals Drugs for Fungal, Viral and Parasitic Diseases
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Antivirals 900,000 Americans are living with HIV 40,000 new infections occur each year Since the start of the AIDS epidemic More than 450,000 Americans have died of AIDS 45 million Americans are infected
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Antivirals Antiretroviral drugs for AIDS No cure for the disease, but can extend life Antiretrovirals block some component of the virus replication cycle HIV mutates extremely rapidly and new resistant strains develop quickly New drugs are constantly being created More than 16 drugs are available now
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Antivirals Types of antiretrovirals Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) Inhibits reverse transcriptase – prevents the conversion of viral RNA into DNA Zidovudine (AZT) Has been used for > 20 years for HIV Now many resistant strains, used in combination with other drugs SE may include low blood counts, N/V/D
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Antivirals Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) Inhibits reverse transcriptase – prevents the conversion of viral RNA into DNA by binding to the enzyme Protease Inhibitors Newest class of antiretrovirals Block the final assembly of the HIV particle Very effective, but resistance develops quickly Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
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Antivirals Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course HSC 201 taught by Professor Jordan during the Spring '08 term at Harper.

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Lecture 10 Immune System-2007 - Inflammatory and Immune...

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