South Asia in 1648Source: Timemaps.comSouth Asia in 1789Source: Timemaps.comSouth Asia in 1837Source: Timemaps.comSouth Asia in 1914Source: Timemaps.comContextualizeWhat was the historical context for British imperialism in India? How did the British gain, consolidate, and maintain power in India?A map of the British Empire in 1921 when it was at its height. Its dominance of India started in the 1600s. Image is courtesy of Wikimedia Commons and is Public Domain.UNIT 10.4| Imperialism | SQ 4. How did the British gain, consolidate, and maintain power in India?EnglandIndia
The British East India Company,was granted a contract by Queen Elizabeth I of England on December 31, 1600, that allowed them to trade with India and the surrounding areas. The goal was to make money for the company’s shareholders and in 1608, the company established its first trading post in India.In the 1600s, the Mughal Empire, led by Emperor Jahangir, was in control of India. The Mughals preferred to work with the British over the Portuguese, who had sent their own trading ships to India. The British defeated the Portuguese in a naval battle in 1612, making them the most important European traders in India. Asa result, the Mughal emperor signed a treaty that gave the British rights to live and build trading forts in Indian coastal cities. By 1647, the company had twenty-three posts and ninety employees in India. In 1634, the Mughal emperor extended his hospitality to the English traders to the region of Bengal, and in 1717 completely waived taxes on their trade. The company's main businesses were in cotton, silk, indigo, saltpeter (used in gunpowder), and tea. 1. What was the British East India Company? What was their goal in India? What did they trade?2. How were the British initially treated by the Mughal government in India?The British East India Company was a joint-stock company, where the stock is owned by a group of shareholders, that was granted a contract intending to explore and trade with India and surrounding areas. Their goal in India was to make money for the company’s shareholders. They traded cotton, silk, indigo, saltpeter (chemical used in gun powder), and tea. In 1608, the company establishes its first trading post in India.The British were initially treated warmly by the Mughal government in India. The Mughal emperor signed a treaty that gave the British rights to reside and build trading forts within India's coastal cities. They were allowed to trade within the Bengal region and later waved taxes on trade. By 1647, the Company had 23 posts and 90 employees in India.Around 1670, King Charles II of England gave the British East India Company rights to run their territories in India as they saw fit. He gave them the power to mint money, command fortresses and troops, form alliances, make war and peace, and to enforce laws in the areas they controlled. With the freedom to manage its military affairs, the company rapidly raised its own armed forces in the 1680s. They hired local Indian soldiers, known as Sepoys, to fill most of the posts. By 1689the company was arguably a "