Lecture18 - Welcome to Astronomy 100 Prof Bryan Dunne...

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Welcome’to’Astronomy’100! NASA Prof. Bryan Dunne Lecture 18 - The Jovians 1 Welcome to Astronomy 100: Lecture 18 - The Jovians Today, we will examine the Jovian planets including their moons and ring systems.
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ASTR’100 Lecture’18 Topics for Today: What are jovian planets like? What kind of moons orbit the jovian planets? What are the jovian rings like? 2
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Jovian’Planets’-’ A’Diferent’Kind’oF’Planet Bigger & more massive Lower density, different composition Rapid rotation Rings, numerous moons NASA Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune 3 The Jovian planets contain most of the matter in the solar system which is not in the Sun. Jupiter alone is 71% of the mass of the entire planetary system. More massive, but less dense, than the Terrestrial planets Accumulated large amounts of hydrogen and helium Thick, high pressure atmospheres, of hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, (some evidence for water!) Rapid rotations (10-17hrs) Many rings, many satellites
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Two’classes’of’jovians Jupiter and Saturn ~100-300 Earth masses ~10 Earth diameters ~10 hours rotation Brownish coloration Uranus and Neptune ~15 Earth masses ~4 Earth diameters ~17 hours rotation Bluish coloration NASA Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune 4
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Jupiter’&’Saturn:’Gas’Giants’ (or maybe Liquid Giants) Composition: mostly hydrogen & helium Atmospheres ~1000 km thick Liquid H interiors High pressures Liquid metal at very high pressures “Rocky” cores Rock, “ices”, metal etc. . Temps > 20,000º C! NASA 5 Composition is mainly hydrogen and helium. Below the roughly 1000-kilometer-thick atmosphere, a layer of liquid hydrogen extends to a depth of 20,000 kilometers. Even deeper, it is believed that there is a layer of liquid metallic hydrogen at a pressure of 3 million atmospheres. The planet core of 10 M Earth is believed to be comprised of iron-nickel alloy, rock, & “ices” at a temperature estimated to exceed 20,000C.
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Uranus’&’Neptune:’Ice’Giants Atmosphere: H, He, and traces of methane Methane absorbs red light, giving planets their bluish colors Mantles: water, ammonia, and methane “ices” Superheated (2,500 - 5,000º C) and high pressure Cores: rock and ices NASA 6 H/He atmospheres No metallic hydrogen layer Mantle is an “ocean” of compressed water, ammonia, & methane - superheated, but under high pressure
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What’is’the’weather’like’on’jovian’ planets? Clouds are divided into bands Lightly-colored zones Relatively dark belts Run east-west, parallel to the equator Bounded by wind flows called jets Due to planets’ rapid rotational speeds Cloud belts and zones circle Jupiter like stripes on a ball Wikimedia Commons 7 Jupiter's atmosphere is very dynamic and colorful and Saturn's atmosphere is a muted version of Jupiter's. Even though their atmospheres are primarily hydrogen and helium, the clouds of ammonia ice crystals in their upper atmospheres give the planets their appearance. The planets’ rapid rotations deFect the clouds into bands parallel to their equators.
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Lecture18 - Welcome to Astronomy 100 Prof Bryan Dunne...

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