Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Memory Acquisition, Storage,...

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Chapter 7: Memory Acquisition, Storage, Retrieval Remembering episodes, general facts, skills, or procedures All draw on different memory systems Acqusition- the initial step toward remembering in which new information is taken in intentional and incidental learning involves a translation process raw material into some intellectual record of the input memory encoding Storage/memory trace/engram- the record in the nervous system that actually preserves a memory of a past experience Retrieval- the process of searching for some item in memory and of finding it. If retrieval fails, this may means that the relevant memory trace is missing. The trace may be simply inaccessible. Recal vs. recognition Recal- response to a cue or question Recognition- “have you seen this before?” Acquisition The Stage Theory of Memory Memory acquisition is the process of moving memories from one (temporary) store into another (more permanent) resting place because we have several types of memory Working memory/short term memory - memory that holds onto the information you are working with right now Memory span - working memory can remember much less information than the long term memory Capacity is thought to be seven items give or take two magic number Long term memory - huge repository that contains everything you know. Dormant storage place for information you are not using but may need later. Rehearsal - a process through which items are kept in working memory for an extended period of time, increasing the likelihood that these items will be transferred to long-term storage Primacy effect - the tendency to remember the first word in a series Reccency effect - the tendency to remember the last word in a series Maintenance rehearsal- a strategy that keeps the information in working memory but with long term effect Processing and Organizing Transfer of information from working memory to long term is not automatic
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Shallow processing - for verbal materials. Involves encoding that emphasizes the superficial characteristics of a stimulus Deep processing - encoding that emphasizes the meaning of material Leads to much better recall To create memories, you have to thing about the to-be-remembered materials in some fashion Attention to meaning is almost always associated with a greater likelihood of recall
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Chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Memory Acquisition, Storage,...

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