Ch 3 Notes - Chapter 3 Nature Nurture and Human Diversity I...

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Chapter 3: Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity I. Introduction: 1. Our human family shares not only a common biological heritage, but also common behavioral tendencies. 2. Kinship appears in social behaviors as well. 3. Universal behaviors reveal our human nature. 4. What causes our diversity and our shared human nature? 1. Genes, culture, and experiences, gender II. Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences Environment – every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us Ex) Jaden Agassi (pg 96) Behavior geneticists – the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior 1. Genes: Our Codes for Life 1. Heredity interacts w/ our experience to create both our universal human nature and our individual and social diversity 2. Chromosomes – threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes 3. Genes – the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein. 1. each of us has 30,000 or so genes 2. Genes do not directly guide our behavior 3. provide the code for creating protein molecules, the building blocks of our physical development 4. genome – the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes 5. genetically speaking, humans share about 99.9% of you DNA 6. Slight person-to-person variations from the common pattern give clues to why one person has a disease that another does not 7. Human traits are influenced by gene complexes – many genes acting in concert 1. How tall you are reflects the height of your face, the size of bones etc. 2. Complex human traits such as intelligence, happiness, and aggressiveness are similarly influenced by groups of genes. Thus our genetic predispositions help explain both our shared human nature and our human diversity. 2. Twin Studies 1. Identical Versus Fraternal Twins 1. To scientifically tease apart the influences of environment and heredity, we would need to control the home environment while varying heredity.
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2. Identical Twins – twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms a. Do not share the same genes but the same conception, uterus, birth date, and usually the same cultural history. 3. Fraternal Twins – twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment. 4. Ex) Alzheimer’s a. ID – if one has it the other has a 60% change b. FT – only 30% 5. Behavior geneticists also to work to tease out the influences of siblings’ unique experiences (i.e. same family, neighborhood, schools) 6. Identical twins are much more similar than fraternal twins.
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