Lecture 2 - Self and Self-Regulation (High-Quality, 4-up)

Elf discrepancy theory self esteem ideal self

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Unformatted text preview: . 2. At times I think I am no good at all (reverse). 3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. 3. I feel that I have a number of good qualities. 4. I am unable to do things as well as most other people. 4. I am unable to do things as well as most other people (reverse). 5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of. 5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of (reverse). 6. I certainly feel useless at times. 6. I certainly feel useless at times (reverse). 7. I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others. 7. I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others. 8. I wish I could have more respect for myself 8. I wish I could have more respect for myself (reverse) 9. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. 9. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure (reverse). 10. I take a positive attitude toward myself. 10. I take a positive attitude toward myself. G LOBAL SELF-ESTEEM STATE SELF-ESTEEM Self-esteem that fluctuates based on situation/context Some example items: Typical level of self-esteem I feel good about myself right now I feel inferior to others at this moment (reversed) SOCIOMETER THEORY PERCEIVED REGARD The need to belong is evolutionarily adaptive and selfesteem monitors the likelihood of social exclusion Sociometer An internal monitor of social acceptance/rejection How we believe we are viewed by others We tend to underestimate how positively close others like us P ERCEIVED REGARD Method: PERCEIVED REGARD Results: Participants bring a friend with them to the lab Participant and friend fill out a personality survey 3 times: How you view yourself (Self View) How you see your friend (Other View) How you think your friend sees you (Perceived Regard) SELF-SERVING BIASES Friend’s Other View significantly more positive than Participant’s Self View Participant’s Perceived Regard significantly more positive than Self View Participant’s Perceived Regard significantly lower than Friend’s Other View SELF-ENHANCEMENT Tendency to see oneself as better-than-average on favourable characteristics Self-Enhancement Some examples: 90% of US adults classify themselves as above average drivers Positive Illusions Social Comparisons 1,000,000 High School seniors applying to college were asked to assess their leadership abilities: 70% said they were above average 94% of University Professors think they are better at their jobs than their colleagues S OCIAL COMPARISONS WHERE DOES THE SELF RESIDE? Evaluation of oneself by comparing the Self to others The brain has it Upward Comparison Comparison of the Self to someone who is better off than oneself Prefrontal Cortex Medial Prefrontal Lobes Self-referential...
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