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Unformatted text preview: t clearcut victories, sanctions still can be an effective, if limited, weapon in the United States' diplomatic arsenal. Sanctions, if properly enforced, raise havoc with an embattled economy. Although they are powerless to turn back fierce aggression like Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, they can raise difficulties for contentious states. Securing the suspension of sanctions on natural gas and heating oil to Serbia during the bitter winter of 1995 made Milosevic more amenable to compromise at Dayton.9 Economic sanctions and political containment squeezed Libya to the point that it openly discussed having two of its citizens stand trial in The Hague for bombing Pan Am flight 103 over Scotland in 1988. Libyan strongman Qaddafi floated the idea of making a deal with the United States in return for dropping sanctions in mid1998. Even less than watertight restrictions interfere with normal business mechanisms, adding extra costs and economic inefficiencies to the sanctioned country. That economic coercion can be effective is borne out by the evidence that resentful embargoed countries struggle to have sanctions lifted, reviling America for imposing them. They pay fortunes to Washington lobbyists to work the political process to terminate...
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- Summer '12