Learner-centered assessment: enhance student learning;
criterion-referenced: evaluate learners’ progress & instructional quality.
Use entry behavior test
(mastery of prerequisite skills), pretest (profile learners’ skills), practice test (rehearse
knowledge, judge level of understanding), posttest (assess performance, assign credit).
information: objective (multiple-choice, short-answer, matching, alternative response);
intellectual skills: product, live performance; attitude: state preference, observe behavior;
psychomotor: demonstrate task, perform sequence of steps.
Mastery: performance expected
from best learners; clear/explicit level or what’s required for job success.
test items/tasks congruent w/ terminal & performance objectives; learner-centered criteria:
tailored to characteristics & needs of learners; context-centered criteria: authentic/realistic test
items; assessment-centered criteria: well-constructed, professional-looking test that gives
students all information necessary to answer.
Try to have several items for 1 objective to test for
Can cluster items for 1 objective together.
Give clear directions: test title suggests
content covered, amount of credit, whether to guess, spelling, names/group id, time/word/space
Formative evaluation: clear directions, clear items, realistic response conditions, clear
response methods, appropriate space/time/equipment.
Developing instrument: identify,
paraphrase, sequence elements, use checklist, rating scale, or frequency count for evaluator
judgments (add sum for each).
Portfolio assessment uses work samples: anchored to specific
instructional goals, criterion-reference assessments, accompanied by rubric.
congruence by putting related components together, instructional analysis chart.
Design (Ch. 9)
Delivery system/media selection can be effected by available of existing
instructional materials, production/implementation constraints, amount of instructor facilitation.
Components of instructional package: instructional materials, assessments, course management