Sample Exam 2 - BIO 328 Examination 2 2 November 2005 FOR...

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BIO 328 Examination 2 2 November 2005 FOR EACH QUESTION, SELECT THE MOST INCORRECT ANSWER Mark your answers on the op-scan sheet with a No.2 pencil. If you change your answer, be sure to erase thoroughly. There are 20 questions on this examination so be sure to answer all of them. Fill in your name and SBU ID number (NOT YOUR SS#) on the answer sheet. 1. Cellular constituents of brain: a. Astrocytes are central nervous system glial cells that have foot processes closely apposing brain capillary vessels. b. Oligodendrocytes are central nervous system homologues of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. c. Microglia are modified immune cells related to macrophages. d. Ependymal cells line the ventricular walls and are one of several cellular constituents involved in the formation of the blood brain barrier. e. Gray matter in the central nervous system contains not only the cell bodies and dendrites of neurons, but the synaptic input to neurons. 2. Muscle stretch reflex: a. Sugar, on occasion, is capable of eliciting this reflex. b. Patellar tap generates polysynaptic excitation of α -motoneurons providing inhibitory innervation of hamstring muscles. c. Is involved in the maintenance of muscle tone in antigravity extensor muscles. d. By changing the frequency of action potentials, information about the length of extrafusal fibers is continuously transmitted to the CNS over IA afferent fibers. e. Activation of IA spindle afferent fibers excites γ -motoneurons innervating intrafusal fibers in the stretched muscle. 3. Comparison of peptide, steroid and amine hormones: a. Usually, the target cell effects of lipid-soluble steroid and amine hormones have a long half-life because binding to their intracellular receptors triggers gene activation. b. A major difference between steroid and peptide hormones is that steroid hormones diffuse across cell membranes and bind to intracellular receptors while peptide hormones are lipophobic and, consequently, peptide receptors are located in peripheral membrane. c. Depending on the specific amine hormone, amine hormone effects can have a short or long half- life, and can bind to G-protein linked receptors in cell membranes, or intracellularly located nuclear receptors. d. Some water-soluble amine hormones are transported in blood bound to carrier proteins in order to prevent rapid degradation and thereby extend their short half- life. e. In contradistinction to the hormone release properties of the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, under appropriate physiological conditions, can simultaneously release water- and lipid-soluble hormones. 1
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BIO 328 Examination 2 2 November 2005 4. Organization of spinal cord: a. The spinal cord exhibits a topographic organization such that the neurons mediating motor output and sensory functions in the arms and shoulders are located rostral to the neurons mediating sensory and motor functions in the legs and hips. b.
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Sample Exam 2 - BIO 328 Examination 2 2 November 2005 FOR...

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