chapt44_lecture - CHAPTER 44 NEUROSCIENCE II: EVOLUTION AND...

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1 CHAPTER 44 NEUROSCIENCE II: EVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEMS
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2 Nervous system is the product of hundreds of millions of years of evolution Development provided advantages that promoted reproductive success Organization ranges from simple network of a few cells to complexity of human brain
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3 Representative nervous systems Except for sponges , all animals have a nervous system Nerve net Simplest nervous system Cnidarians ( jellyfish, hydras, anemones) Neurons connect to each other in a network
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4 Echinoderms Slightly more sophisticated Nerve ring around mouth connected to larger radial nerves extending to arms Planaria Nerve cords extend length of animal connected by transverse nerves Collection of neurons in head form ganglia Perform basic integration
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5 Annelids Same basic structure More neurons Ventral nerve cords have ganglia in each segment Simple mollusks Similar to annelids Pair of anterior ganglia Paired nerve cords
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6 Trend toward cephalization – increasingly complex brain in the head Drosophila Brain has several subdivisions with separate functions Advanced mollusks Brains with well- developed subdivisions
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7 Vertebrates and simpler chordates have a CNS (brain and spinal cord) and PNS Organization shows similarities to segmentation of invertebrates
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8 Overview: Command and Control Center The human brain Contains an estimated 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons Each neuron May communicate with thousands of other neurons
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9 3 divisions of vertebrate brain Entire nervous system develops from neural fold in embryo Hindbrain Metencephalon Myelencephalon Midbrain Mesencephalon Forebrain Telencephalon Diencephalon
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11 Hindbrain Medulla oblongata coordinates many basic reflexes and bodily functions Pons and cerebellum responsible for monitoring and coordinating body movements Midbrain Processes several types of sensory input Controls sophisticated tasks Forebrain Higher functions of conscious thought, planning and emotion Cerebrum Cerebral cortex – outer layer of cerebrum Thalamus and hypothalamus
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12 Increased brain complexity Size of cerebrum and surface area of cerebral cortex (convolutions) increased with more complex nervous systems
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13 Body mass and brain mass proportional with exceptions ( humans and dolphins ) Greater size and folding provides more surface area for greater processing and interpretation of information
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14 Human nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Neurons and axons of neurons outside the CNS
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Nucleus – cell bodies of neurons involved in a similar function in the CNS Ganglion – similar structure in PNS Tract – myelinated axons that run in parallel bundles in the CNS Nerves – similar structure in PNS
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course BIO 3000 taught by Professor Joseph during the Spring '08 term at St. Johns Duplicate.

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chapt44_lecture - CHAPTER 44 NEUROSCIENCE II: EVOLUTION AND...

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