Chap 2 - Brief History of Chemists Boyle performed...

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Brief History of Chemists Boyle- performed quantitative experiments, first true chemist, introduced concept of elements Joseph Priestly- discovered oxygen, known as “dephlogisticated air” Phlogiston was supposedly the material that transported fire from combustible elements Lavoisier- created the law of conservation of mass
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More history Joseph Proust- Discovered that compounds always had the same proportion of elements (water always had 2 hydrogens to 1 oxygen) Dalton- Realized that these proportion of elements were always integers! Result: elements are quantized particles known as atoms. Atoms in an element are the same Compounds are combination of atoms of different elements Chemical reactions reorganize atoms, not change them
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Sigh… more history Joseph Gay-Lussac (hee hee)- did studies to show how 2 liters of hydrogen combined with 1 liter of oxygen gave us 2 liters of steam NOT 3 as you’d expect. Why? Amadeo Avagadro- presumed that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure has the same number of molecules! – Using his theory, we can say 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O The theories are compatible!
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Now, for the Atom itself J.J. Thompson- noted a “ray” produced when a voltage was applied in a tube. This ray was negatively charged. Proposed these rays were many particles electrons Assumed electrons arranged themselves “like raisins embedded in a plum pudding of positive charge” Also found how much charge a certain mass of electron has Robert Millikan found the magnitude of charge given by one electron by charging oil drops (famous oil drop experiment). This gave us the mass of the electron
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The Nuclear Atom Ernest Rutherford- fired alpha particles (nuclei of the helium atom) at a gold sheet Found that while most passed through as you’d
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