Students should be able to:
Appreciate the evolutionary diversity of animals.
Understand the classification of animals and features used for those classifications.
Understand some of the unique characteristics of animals – cellular characteristics,
development, heterotrophism, and sexual reproduction.
Examine the trends in evolution of animal structures – organizational structure,
embryological germ layers, symmetry, body plan, body cavity and segmentation.
Appreciate the role of morphology, anatomy, and physiology in adaptation to
environmental conditions and local habitats.
Appreciate the roles of animals and humans in ecological systems.
Animals are eukaryotic, i.e., have membrane–bounded specialized cell compartments
(organelles) in which various metabolic functions take place. Two other kingdoms that we have
previously studied, namely, protists and fungi, as well as plants, share in this common cellular
trait with animals. The exceptions to this are members of the kingdom Monera (Archaea and
Eubacteria or common bacteria). You may recall that these organisms lack membrane-bounded
organelles, and are called prokaryotes.
Animals, including humans lack the ability to synthesize organics materials from simple,
inorganic components as plants and some bacteria do. Thus, animals are characterized as
heterotrophic, a trait that varies widely amongst, and between groups. Other essential life
functions, such as development and growth, reproduction and dispersal show varying complexity
Animals also differ in several other respects. There are no fewer than 12 phyla, which are
divided into invertebrates (animals without backbone) and vertebrates (animals with backbone.
Some phylogenetically lower groups, such as the sponges, are organized at the cellular level,
without any discernable tissue structure or organ, others, like mammals; reveal high complexity
in organ system and functions. Similar gradation from simple to complex is seen in respect to
germ layers, body plan, and body coelom or cavity.
- Life Cycles
Use text, internet and other resources to help you the following:
1. A haploid life cycle
A diploid life cycle
3. Alternation of generations life cycle
Pre-Lab Activity - Animal Imagery
Search the web for addresses that have images of the following:
sponge (cross section)
from this website: