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biology - Animal Features Objectives Students should be...

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Animal Features Objectives Students should be able to: 1. Appreciate the evolutionary diversity of animals. 2. Understand the classification of animals and features used for those classifications. 3. Understand some of the unique characteristics of animals – cellular characteristics, development, heterotrophism, and sexual reproduction. 4. Examine the trends in evolution of animal structures – organizational structure, embryological germ layers, symmetry, body plan, body cavity and segmentation. 5. Appreciate the role of morphology, anatomy, and physiology in adaptation to environmental conditions and local habitats. 6. Appreciate the roles of animals and humans in ecological systems. Introduction Animals are eukaryotic, i.e., have membrane–bounded specialized cell compartments (organelles) in which various metabolic functions take place. Two other kingdoms that we have previously studied, namely, protists and fungi, as well as plants, share in this common cellular trait with animals. The exceptions to this are members of the kingdom Monera (Archaea and Eubacteria or common bacteria). You may recall that these organisms lack membrane-bounded organelles, and are called prokaryotes. Animals, including humans lack the ability to synthesize organics materials from simple, inorganic components as plants and some bacteria do. Thus, animals are characterized as heterotrophic, a trait that varies widely amongst, and between groups. Other essential life functions, such as development and growth, reproduction and dispersal show varying complexity and diversity. Animals also differ in several other respects. There are no fewer than 12 phyla, which are divided into invertebrates (animals without backbone) and vertebrates (animals with backbone. Some phylogenetically lower groups, such as the sponges, are organized at the cellular level, without any discernable tissue structure or organ, others, like mammals; reveal high complexity in organ system and functions. Similar gradation from simple to complex is seen in respect to germ layers, body plan, and body coelom or cavity. Pre-Lab Activity - Life Cycles Use text, internet and other resources to help you the following: 1. A haploid life cycle 2. A diploid life cycle 3. Alternation of generations life cycle Pre-Lab Activity - Animal Imagery Search the web for addresses that have images of the following: 4. Grantia sponge (cross section) http://alpha1.fmarion.edu/~bio106lab/Resources/grantiacs3.jpg from this website: http://alpha1.fmarion.edu/~bio106lab/animal1.html
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5. Hydra spp. from this website: (approximately halfway down the page you will see hydra) http://alpha1.fmarion.edu/~bio106lab/animal1.html 6. Planaria spp. http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/olympusmicd/galleries/darkfield/planaria.html 7. Ascaris lumbricoides http://www.stanford.edu/class/humbio103/ParaSites2005/Ascaris/JLora_ParaSite_files/image 021.gif 8. Dirofilaria immitis http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/dimitfsc.jpg 9. Enterobius vermicularis http://www.k-state.edu/parasitology/546tutorials/NEMFIG05.JPG
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