psych review exam 1

Psych review exam 1 - INTROSPECTIONISM study of conscious experiences very disciplined trained and systematic limited research tool because some

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INTROSPECTIONISM study of conscious experiences very disciplined, trained and systematic limited research tool because some thoughts are unconscious no way to test, compare or conclude findings BEHAVIORISM able to observe actions/behaviors and objectively record them able to manipulate external stimuli and observe behavior stages of behaviorism 1. Reflex arc reductionism (Watson) -brain is very complicated, reflex arc theory is wrong 2. S-R Behaviorism (Hull-Spence) -stimulus causes chain of reactions to reach response 3. Radical behaviorism (Skinner) -all organismic action is determined and not free -schedules of reinforcement COGNITIVISM Gestalt psychology -role of structure and organization -perceptual whole is often different from the sum of its parts -perception of the visual world is organized in ways that the stimulus is not compared the brain to a computer, used terms like "buffers" and "central processors" cognitivism is the hypothesis that thought is fundamentally computational the workings of the mind belong to the same general class of natural phenomena as the functioning of computational systems cybernetics: negative feedback loops, goal directed systems, circular causality THE BRAIN emergence : organization of simple units (neurons) do more together because of their structure -the whole is greater than each individual part self organization : our environment helps shape the development of the brain so that it is well organized for dealing with the world multiple realizability : multiple parts of the brain can implement the same functions in different ways -plasticity: after injury, new areas may take over the functions of a damaged area PARTS OF A NEURON -neuron : cells that carry info throughout nervous system -soma (cell body): contains nucleus and metabolic machinery -dendrites : detect incoming signals -axon : transmits a signal to another location -neurotransmitters : chemicals that allow neurons to communicate -synapse : end of axon, gap, & receiving membrane of the next neuron -presynaptic membrane : axon's end -postsynaptic membrane : receiving membrane on the next neuron’s dendrites incoming signals must meet threshold in order to fire and send signal on -refractory period : time during which a neuron cannot repeat the same action, that is why voltage flow goes in one direction -all or none law : signal is sent or is not composition : complex functions are often made up of simpler functions combined in specific ways function decomposition : breaking a function into its component functions and how they are put together
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-functions are functions of functions recursive decomposition : a complex function is decomposed into its simpler component functions which may be decomposed into even simpler component functions emergence depends on decomposition nonidentity : parts participating in multiple functions -there is a direct correspondence between functions and parts
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course PSYCH 031 taught by Professor Vecera during the Spring '08 term at University of Iowa.

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Psych review exam 1 - INTROSPECTIONISM study of conscious experiences very disciplined trained and systematic limited research tool because some

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