Dawn SkovronskiHUMANITIES 2 JournalsChapter 11 The Early Renaissance Return to Classical Roots 1400-1494The stages of the Italian Renaissance were Early Renaissance, High Renaissance, and Late Renaissance. In 1403-1424, Ghiberti’s north doors at the Florentine Baptistery happened. Invention of linear perspective happened in 1425. In 1424-1452 Ghiberti’s east doors at the Florentine Baptistery happened. Completion of Pazzi Chapel happened in 1461. In 1462, Platonic Academy in Florence was founded. In the 1480s Botticelli’s Primavera and The Birth of Venus happened. In 1483, Leonardo da Vinci’s The Virgin of the Rocks happened.
Chapter 12 The High Renaissance and Early Mannerism 1494-1564In 1494, the French invasion of Italy happened. In 1508 to 1512, Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel did ceiling frescoes. In 1519, Leonardo da Vinci died. In 1520, Raphael died. In 1532, Machiavelli’s The Prince was published. In 1536 to 1541, Michelangelo’s Last Judgment fresco was made. In 1564, Michelangelo died. Early Mannerism happened after the High Renaissance. New technologies during this time were the magnetic compass and the astrolabe. The galley ended up in naval warfare after 1400. The caravel was replaced by the large galleon during this time. Other technology during this time were the cannon, lightweight rust-free bronze cannon, arsenals, and foundries.
Chapter 13 Northern Humanism, Northern Renaissance, Religious Reformations and LateMannerismGothic forms and mysticism were going into art and religion. Minds and hearts were shaping into thinkers, writers, and artists. William Shakespeare wrote a lot of stuff during a period where religious wars were disrupting France. Late gothic style of Flemish school was losing its appeal. 1520s had a new religious sect by Martin Luther. Corruption of Church led to decay of medieval thought and revival of Humanism. Luther got excommunicated from the church, also survived because of the protection of Elector Frederick the wise of Saxony. Calvinism was started by John Calvin. Anglicanism was founded by Henry VIII. There was a war which was Charles V vs. Lutheran Forces on German Lands in 1546 and lasted until 1555. Martin Luther died in 1546. Strongest impact of Counter Reformation on arts, architecture, and music began after the Council of Trent in 1563. El Greco had the best art expressed for the spirit of the Counter Reformation, which were in his Spanish paintings after 1576. Chivalric novel and picaresque novel were now different literary forms in writing. High Renaissance style declined which led to the Rise of Baroque style. Madrigal was now in music. Word paintings started after madrigal formed.
Chapter 14 The Baroque Age Glamour and Grandiosity 1600-1715Baroque happened in 1600 and was a new European Age. Art and architecture had ideas of grandeur, opulence, and expanding. Great scientific discoveries and intellectual change happened during the time. The conflicts in that time that happened territorial expansion and the race for overseas empires. By 1715 balance of power in Europe were among England, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Absolutism was happening at the time. Thirty Years War happened