Psychology Test I

Psychology Test I - I. Psychology Test I Chapter 1: History...

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Psychology Test I I. Chapter 1: History of Psychology and Research Methods a. Psychology: Psyche (soul) and ology (study of), the science of behavior and mental processes i. Behavior: observable actions of a person or animal ii. Mind: thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams motives, and other subjective experiences iii. Science: an objective way to answer questions based on observable facts/data and well- described methods b. Wilhelm Wundt: first laboratory, first psyche textbook i. Structuralism: identify “atoms” of the mind, “psychology is what we’re made of” ii. An early school of psychology that attempted to understand how the mind is structured by breaking down mental experiences into their smallest components c. William Jones i. Functionalism: we should be studying adaptive functions of behavior (why we do what we do), figures out motivation behind behavior ii. Believed that psychology should focus on how our behavior and mental processes help us adapt to the demands we face in the world d. John Watson i. Behaviorism: study of overt behavior ii. Was based on the belief that psychology would advance as a science only if it turned away from the study of mental processes and limited itself to the study of observable behaviors that could be recorded and measured e. B.F. Skinner i. Learning and effect of reinforcement (positive and negative) ii. Studied how behavior is shaped by rewards and punishments f. Max Wertheimer i. Gestalt psychology: brain structures our perception of world into meaningful, example: triangle with lines not all the way drawn ii. Was based on the principle that the human brain organizes our perceptions of the world, so that we perceive organized patterns or wholes, not individual bits and pieces of sense experiences added together g. Sigmund Freud i. Psychodynamic: behavior is influence by struggle between unconscious and conscious blocking 1. ID: impulses, drives (unconscious, instinctual) examples: aggression, sexual drive (little devil on right shoulder) 2. Ego- reality, what really happens 3. Superego: morals (little angel on left shoulder) constant unconscious battle between ID and superego ii. Freud conceived of the unconscious as the repository of primitive sexual aggressive drives or instincts, and of the wishes, impulses, and urges that arise from those drives or instincts iii. Also believed that early childhood experiences play a determining role in shaping our personalities and behavior h. Other perspectives i. Social Cognitive Theory: cognitive environment, Behavior= person x environment 1. A contemporary learning-based model that emphasizes the roles played by both cognitive and environmental factors in determining behavior ii. Humanist: free will and conscious choice, focus on emotions and empathy 1. The school of psychology that believes that free will and conscious choice are essential aspects of the human experience iii. Evolutionary: how evolution shapes us, people remember animal tracks better then
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course PSYC 104 taught by Professor Reysen during the Spring '08 term at Kansas.

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Psychology Test I - I. Psychology Test I Chapter 1: History...

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