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Stuff You Need to Know – Week 1Science before Darwin:Concept of “eidos” and the role it played in preventing evolutionary thinkingEidos: 1.Early Western Culture species fixed & eternal2.Possibility of change not considered3.All species had perfect essence4.Variation was seen as failure to achieve eidosContributions of the following towards the development of the theory of evolution•Hutton (1726-1797) Scottish, -Came up with the theory of “Uniformitarianism”•Lyell (1797-1875) -Came up with “Principle of Geology” (gift given to Darwin) -Gradual geologic change•Malthus (1766-1834) -Sociological observations -Demography/economics-Population growth/resource limitation -“The Principle of Population”, -Helped Darwin•Smith (1723-1790) Scottish -Capitalism -Competition•Linneaus (1707-1778) Swedish -Botanist-Father of modern taxonomy-Formally classified living organisms [binomial system] •Lamarck (1744-1824) French -Botanist/Zoologist -Developed first comprehensive theory of organic evolution-Mechanism of acquired characteristics: “Characteristics you acquire in your lifetime would be passed down to generations (not correct)-Evolution drove animals from simple to complex forms-Organisms are always aspiring to be something different-He did identify the change, only the mechanism was wrongTerms•Eidos (above)•Unifomitarianism - Earth repeated in cycles & took mountains long periods of time to form•Scala naturae - Species are fixed rungs on a ladder, earliest form of taxonomyLecture 2 – Darwin and the theory of evolution
Role the following played in influencing Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle:•Biogeography-Documented biogeographic patterns while on his voyage (birds/finches, tortoises)•Fossils-Made many new discoveries in fossils + fauna-After voyage, catalogs specimens•Geology-Observed geological features, fossils, living organismsTheory of evolution: “Evolution of new species occurs via descent with modification of existing species & themechanism for this is natural selection.”2 components of the mechanism of Natural Selection: 1. Struggle for existence 2. Survival of the fittestStuff You Need to Know – Week 2Fitness-Members of the population show variation for heritable traits-Some traits give individuals a selective advantage over others-These tend to leave more offspring in next generation-Over time the character of the population changesAdaptation-Any trait that increases your fitnessEvidence supporting evolution: