Thorax and Abdomen Notes - Thorax and Abdomen Orthopedic...

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Thorax and Abdomen Orthopedic Assessment III – Head, Spine, and Trunk with Lab PET 5609C Clinical Anatomy Thorax – bone cavity Formed by 12 pairs of ribs that join posteriorly with the thoracic spine and anteriorly with the sternum Thoracic Cavity: Lined with a thin layer of tissue (pleura) One lung in each thoracic cavity Mediastinum is between the chest cavity Heart, Aorta, Superior and Inferior Vena Cava, Trachea, Major Bronchi, and Esophagus Spinal cord – protected by vertebral column Clinical Anatomy Muscles of Inspiration: Diaphragm: Separates thoracic and abdominal activities Innervation: phrenic nerve Inhalation – diaphragm contracts enlarging the thoracic cavity and reducing intra-thoracic pressure (air drawn into lungs) Exhalation – diaphragm relaxes and air is exhaled by elastic recoil of the lungs Clinical Anatomy Clinical Anatomy Muscles of Inspiration: Intercostal muscles: External intercostal muscles: (outside of the ribcage) Elevate the ribs and expand the transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity (aid in quiet and forced inhalation) Internal intercostal muscles: (inside the ribcage) Depress the ribs decreasing the transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity (aid in forced expiration) Scalene muscles:
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Elevate the 1 st and 2 nd ribs SCM, trapezius, serratus anterior, pectoralis major/minor and latissimus dorsi (secondary muscles) Muscles of Expiration: Abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, internal/external obliques, transverse abdominis Clinical Anatomy Respiratory Tract Anatomy: Trachea: Connects larynx to 2 principle bronchi Left bronchus 2 segmental bronchi (2 lobes) Right bronchus 3 segmental bronchi (3 lobes) Pleura: Parietal pleura – lines thoracic wall Visceral pleura – surrounds lungs Alveoli: Terminal branches of bronchioles Gas exchange Capillary system blood exchanged (pulmonary arteries and veins) Clinical Anatomy Digestive Tract Anatomy: Esophagus: Carries food/liquid to stomach Small intestine: Duodenum, jejunum, ileum Large intestine: Cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon Rectum and Anus Clinical Anatomy
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Lymphatic Organ Anatomy: Spleen: Left upper quadrant (level of 9 th -11 th ribs) Solid organ Function: Produce and destroy red blood cells Blood reservoir Increased risk of injury mononucleosis Clinical Anatomy Urinary Tract Anatomy: Kidneys: Filter blood Regulate electrolyte levels: Maintain balance of water, sodium, potassium Location: Posterior part of the abdominal cavity: (level of T12 – L3 vertebrae) Right kidney: sits below the diaphragm and posterior to the liver; sits slightly lower than left kidney Left kidney: sits below the diaphragm and posterior to the spleen Note: Lower portion of kidneys susceptible to trauma (unprotected by ribs) Clinical Anatomy
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