Biol_Sci_205_lecture_exam_5_study_guide.pdf - Biol Sci 205...

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Biol Sci 205 lecture exam 5 study guide Know the functions of the kidneys Filter the blood and excrete the toxic metabolic waste Regulate blood volume, pressure, and osmolarity by regulating water output Regulate the electrolyte and acid-base balance of the body fluids Secrete the hormone erythropoietin, which stimulates the production of RBCs Help regulate calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism by participating in the synthesis of calcitriol Detoxify free radicals Know what azotemia and BUN are Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) o Expression of the level of nitrogenous waste in blood Azotemia o Elevated BUN Know what a nephron is, along with its parts and their functions Nephron o One of approximately 1 million blood-filtering, urine-producing units in each kidney; consist of a glomerulus, glomerular capsule o Renal corpuscle § Filters the blood plasma o Renal tubule § Converts the filtrate to urine Know what kidney autoregulation is and how it occurs Renal autoregulation o The ability of the nephrons to adjust their own blood flow and GFR without external (nervous or hormonal) control. How renal autoregulation occurs o myogenic mechanism § responding to higher normal B.P. § contract tunica media (smooth muscle) constrict o slows down blood, to be homeostasis § decrease blood flow in systemic circuit o tubuloglomerular feedback § relies on distal tubule § justaglomeral apparatus contact with glumerulos § check composition of blood (DCT) § involved in low normal B.P. § have more opportunity to reabsorbed more things
maculate cells § juxtaglomerular cells stimulate the secretion of renin o renin involves with B.P either increase or decrease it. Know what causes filtration to occur at the glomerulus and what does not normally get filtered out Pressure causes filtration to occur at the glomerulus Large proteins and formed elements does not normally get filtered out Know what hormones can act on and are secreted by the nephron and their functions Hormones that can act on and are secreted by the nephron o PTH § increase blood calcium levels § retain as much calcium § absorb as much calcium from food in intestine o ADH § retain water and conserve water used when dehydrated § influence CD to make aquaporin to reabsorbed water out of urine o ANP § antagonist to aldosterone secreted by the heart dump sodium have high B.P. Nephron o Renin o EPO Understand how the counter-current multiplier and the counter-current exchanger maintain a salinity gradient in the renal medulla and what the function of this is. Be able to describe the two ways in which tubular reabsorption occurs. 1. Transcellular route a. In which substances pass through the cytoplasm and out the base of the epithelial cells 2. Paracellular route a. In which substances pass through gaps between the cells.

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