NR 602 Week 6 Grand Rounds Summary.docx - Summary Cervical...

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Summary Cervical cancer is the 3 rd most prevalent cancer among women and the 4 th leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The incidence of cervical cancer has decreased significantly over the last 40 years due to routine screening and early treatment. Despite the decrease there continues to be an increased incidence among Hispanic and African American women; this is thought to be related to lack of knowledge and assess to care (Markt et al., 2018). The greatest contributing risk factor for cervical cancer is Human Papillomavirus (HPV). There are more than 200 strains of HPV that have been identified with multiple strains associated with the development of cancer. HPV can be spread through sexual contact (CDC, 2018). HPV genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common cause of cervical cancers worldwide, followed by genotypes 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58. The incidence of HPV varies with age, but is higher in women younger than age 25. Cervical cancer usually develops 15–20 years after initial HPV infection; this is thought to occur due to the virus being dormant for so long (Alfaro et al., 2016). Smoking is another contributing risk factor for cervical cancer as cigarettes contain carcinogens which can affect organs within the body (American Cancer Society, 2015). Also, if there is an immune system deficiency this can put an individual at greater risk because it is more difficult for their body to fight off HPV and may result in developing cervical cancer. STD’s, multiple sex partners, multiparity, long term use of oral contraceptives, DES exposure in utero, and a family history of cervical cancer have also been shown to increase the chances that an individual will also have cervical cancer. Clinical findings can include abnormal uterine bleeding, vaginal discharge, dyspareunia, pelvic pain, and the cervix may appear normal in the early stages. Later findings may include hematuria, bladder obstruction, constipation, back pain, leg swelling due to lymphatic or vascular blockage, cervical erosions, ulcerations, hardening of the cervix, and/or irregular cauliflower like growths may be present (Hollier, 2016).

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