GG271.pdf - Week 1 Lesson 1 Intro - Learn conceptualization...

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Week 1 Lesson 1Intro-Learn conceptualization of the city and explain the origin of cities which haveplayed an integral part of geography-4 major functional theories of urban origin will be discussed are hydraulic,economic, military and religious theories-Also learn the concept of nuclear urbanism and diffusion of cities are presentedalong with the basic process and products of urban evolutionUrban concept-One is faced with major challenges in the attempt to define the term city-Researcher Max Weber (1958) conceptualization emphasized trade commercialrelations-The other features Weber associates with the city are fortification for defence,presence of a market, coast, and partial independence-The main problem with this conceptualization is that it excluded all the orientalcities-According to Weber, urbanism was only a western phenomenon-The other criticism advanced against this conceptualization was its reference todefence as a universal attribute, not all cities were developed as garrison centres-The conceptualizations as put forward by Wheatley (1971), Redfield (1947) andWrith (1938) tend to stress the functional differences between rural and urbancommunities-The common element of all three definitions is social stratification-The characteristic features of cities that differentiate them from rural centres are:the presence of a literate population; movement from familial association to moreindividualism; focus on political and administrative structures; depersonalisation;the presence of legal institutions and; a marked degree of heterogeneity-However these advocates did not consider factors like population size,technology, soil characteristics, and the availability of irrigation which couldfacilitate surplus production and thereby allow for occupational specialization-We then turn to the conceptualization proposed by Childe (1950) who suggestednine taxation, trade, records, the development of exact sciences, artisticexpression and leadershipSize -size of a population was considered to be important in distinguishing betweenvillages and a city.Function and composition -Childe classified the population into agriculturists andnon-agriculturalists. The latter group was engaged in specialised functions
Public buildings -cities were distinguished from earlier villages by the presence ofpublic buildings. The earliest public buildings were temples, important public buildingswere templesTaxation -the taxes in Mesopotamia and Egypt were obtained in the form of agriculturalproducts which in turn were stored in granaries. As people in civilisations were releasedfrom agriculture, taxes were needed to secure their foodTrade -early cities with surplus agricultural production were associated with trade.

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Term
Winter
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