Unit 11 History 1- Start of the Cold War1. Write the correct key term in the blank preceding each definition.a. Berlin airlift : A response to the closing of supply routes to Berlin, Germany. The Soviet Union hoped to force Allied Powers out of West Berlin with this blockade. President Truman arranged for supplies to be taken to West Berlin by Allied airplanes.b. Cold War : The political conflict and military tension between the Soviet Union and the Western powers, especially the United States. It was called the "Cold War" because actual war between the two countries never broke out. It lasted from the end of World War II until the government of the Soviet Union fell apart in 1991.c. Communism : A system of government in which the government controls production. All property is supposed to be shared by everyone. Communism was the form of government in the Soviet Union during the Cold War and continues to be the form of government in China, Laos, Vietnam, and Cuba.d. containment : Part of the U.S. foreign policy intended to slow the spread of Communism from the Soviet Union. The policy called for using military force if necessary.e.George Kennan : (1904 - 2005) A diplomat and political scientist who was a leader in establishing the United States' plans for dealing with the Soviet Union during the Cold War.f. Mao Zedong : (1893 - 1976) The leader of the Communist Party in China and the ruler of the People's Republic of China from 1949 until his death in 1976. His style of Communism is called Maoism.g. Marshall Plan : A U.S. program to give economic aid to the free and democratic countries of Europe following World War II.h. Molotov Plan : The Soviet plan for aid to Eastern Europe, created in response to the United States' Marshall Plan.i. Truman Doctrine : The U.S. policy for dealing with the Soviet Union, as stated by President Truman in a speech in 1947. That policy was to slow the Soviet Union's spread of Communism, which Truman believed put the United States and other democracies in danger.2. Why did the United States and the Soviet Union not trust each other? Because the Soviet Union did not defend the United States during World War II.3. What happened at the Potsdam Conference? The Potsdam Conference had a few different results. One result of the conference was that the Allies agreed on what would happen to Germany. They agreed to divide Germany up into four parts, with each of the US, the UK, France,
and the USSR. They agreed that Germany would be demilitarized.4. Why was the decision by President Truman to drop the atomic bomb controversial?Truman had to decide between a full scale land invasion of Japan or to drop the bombs. A land invasion would have resulted in several hundred thousand more death but the vast majority of them would be soldiers. The atomic bomb specifically targeted civilians.