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Unformatted text preview: LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays) Mixtures: Sodium and potassium
compounds such as NaCl(s) and
KCl(s) are obtained commercially
by evaporation of brines. This photo
shows a solar evaporation pond.
The blue color is due to a dye that is
mixed with the solution to enhance
heat absorption and hence speed up
evaporation. Component substances that exist together
without combining chemically. shown in Figure 2.10. Mercury distillation is usually carried out in an iron ﬂask,
and the mercury is collected and reused to extract more gold. Another example
General Chemistry - 4th ed
of distillation is the extraction of fresh water from seawater; the dissolved salts
Authodistillation ﬂask after
remain behind as solids in the r McQuarrie/Gallogy the water is boiled away.
The simple distillation apparatus shown in Figure 2.10 is suitable for the
Artist George Kelvin
separation of a liquid from a solution when a solid is dissolved in the liquid.
Figure # 002-012
The liquid is the only component that vaporizes or, in other words, is the only
volatile (i.e., easily vaporized) component. The idea is that the liquid is boiled
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away, leaving the solid behind. if revision x contains two or more volatile components, however (e.g., ethanol and water), then the components can be separated by taking advantage of differences in boiling point. The separation of a Homogeneous: Uniform from point to point (solutions are
flask A simple distillation
apparatus can be used to separate
a solid from a liquid in which the
solid is dissolved. The solution in the
distillation ﬂask is heated and the
liquid is vaporized. The vapors rise
in the distillation ﬂask and pass into
the condenser (the long, horizontal
tube with the two hoses connected to
it). The condenser is surrounded by
a water jacket through which cooling
water circulates. The vapor cools
and condenses as it ﬂows down the
condenser tube. It is collected in the
receiving ﬂask. The solid component
of the solution remains behind in the...
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This document was uploaded on 11/06/2013.
- Fall '12