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4-12-13_left-right - Unit 15b Left-right axis specication...

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Unit 15b: Left-right axis specification in vertebrates
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Vertebrates are left-right asymmetric Patel, A. & Honoré, E. (2010) Nat. Rev. Nephrol. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2010.97 Situs solitus (normal) The position of the organs in the body reflects laterality. Normal positioning is known as situs solitus.
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Gilbert 9e, Fig. 8.34 L/R asymmetry is established during early development
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Humans can exhibit left-right reversal Patel, A. & Honoré, E. (2010) Nat. Rev. Nephrol. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2010.97 Situs solitus (normal) Situs inversus totalis Situs inversus totalis : total organ reversal (often healthy) Heterotaxia : randomization of organ position (many defects)
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Situs inversus totalis results in dextrocardia http://pictures.doccheck.com/de/photos/10204/4888/situs-inversus/ heart Dextrocardia : the heart is on the right instead of the left
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Vertebrate L/R axis specification uses conserved components adapted from Gilbert 9e, Fig. 8.14 Organizer (has cilia ) midline Nodal Pitx2 Lefty1 Left Right Lefty1 is a Nodal inhibitor expressed along the midline Pitx2 is a transcription factor Early events are poorly understood Some other components (e.g.
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