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The aer is necessary for proximal distal outgrowth

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Unformatted text preview: d. The AER is necessary for proximal-distal outgrowth. How can we show this? Gilbert 9e, Fig. 13.8 apical ectodermal ridge (AER) The AER is a non-specific growth signal Conclusions: The AER is neccessary for outgrowth. The AER is a nonspecific growth signal. The identity of the limb is determined by the mesenchyme Gilbert 9e, Fig. 13.9 ceases FGFs mediate the effects of the AER Gilbert 9e, Fig. 13.9 Conclusion: FGFs are sufficient to mimic the effects of the AER. Several FGFs will do this in chicks (FGF8, FGF4, FGF2). Non-relevant mesenchyme cannot do this. FGFs mediate the effects of the AER Conclusion: FGFs are necessary for the AER to function. Limb bud can be reconstituted in vitro from mesoderm and ectoderm Recombinant limbs are useful, because the mesenchyme or ectoderm can be pretreated in some way we care about and the results assessed...
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