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3 prokaryotic cells have large numbers of ribosomes

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Unformatted text preview: mp;+,,)"(&  ­AJachment to surfaces ,)-'.#/%0&'.0&  ­Found in many Bacteria & 1'*2%*&,3&%'*#"( Arachaea :)..A.1%'%)@("#@)@'*"'"@$"*+0'(%)@@A%) !"#$"%"& '($)*""+,-+./%)/+.01*(+)($""*"+ 0+#*#,(02*+%2+(*"'$2"*+1$+0+ )$2)*21(0%$2+3(04%*21 !"##$%&'"%($(&##)%*+% ,)-./.+*01%(+#"$$% ,&2*+3%0"##%"+2"#.-" !"#$%&'()*#%&+* !"#$%&'()*,- !% <)0*A%)''X'Y :)..'@*%A0*A%)'1#,'&A#0*+"#Z':/*"([email protected]$+0'0"#@*+*A)#*@'['0)..',[email protected]+"# 4\])0*+Q)Z To understand the structural and functional aspects of prokaryotic cytoplasmic features. 5)/':"#0)(*@Z 1. The cytoplasmic matrix of prokaryotes typically contains several constituents that are not membrane-enclosed, including the nucleoid, ribosomes, and, in some organisms, endospores or inclusion bodies of various types. 2. The prokaryotic chromosome is located in an area called the nucleoid and is not enclosed by a membrane. The chromosome is organized in large loops with the help of DNA binding proteins, and has an origin of replication that attaches to the cell membrane. 3. Prokaryotic cells have large numbers of ribosomes, each of which is composed of many subunits, each with protein and RNA. Prokaryotic ribosomes differ from eukaryotic ribosomes, and often appear as polysomes, or structures with multiple ribosomes on a single mRNA. 4. Transcription of prokaryotic DNA into RNA is often coupled with translation of the RNA into protein, and occurs in the cytoplasm. This contrasts with eukaryotic cells in which DNA is transcribed in the nucleus and the mRNA generally translated in the cytoplasm. Coupling these processes allows for rapid changes in gene and protein expression in response to environmental cues. 5. In prokaryotes, translation of secreted and membrane bound proteins takes place at the membrane due to binding of the signal recognition partic...
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