lecture 9-2 - number of bonding electrons) Rules for Formal...

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Writing Lewis Structures 1) Write the correct skeletal structure for the molecule 2) Calculate the total number of electrons for the Lewis structure by summing the valence-electrons of each atom in the molecule 3) Distribute the electrons among the atoms, giving octets (or duets for hydrogen) to as many atoms as possible 4) If any atoms lack an octet, form double or triple bonds as necessary to give them octets
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Hybrids
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Resonance Hybrid Structures O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O
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Formal Charge Formal charge is a fictitious charge assigned to each atom in a Lewis structure that helps to distinguish among competing Lewis structures. Formal charge of an atom = charge if all bonding electrons were shared equally (between bonded atoms) Formal charge = number of valence electrons – (number of lone pair electrons +
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Unformatted text preview: number of bonding electrons) Rules for Formal Charges 1. The sum of all formal charges a in neutral molecule must be zero. 2. The sum of all formal charges in an ion must equal the charge of the ion. 3. Small (or zero) formal charges on individual atoms are better than large ones. 4. When formal charge cannot be avoided, negative formal charge should reside on the most electronegative atom. Odd-Electron Species N O N O radical! Resonance of a radical O N O O N O Incomplete Octets B F F F B H H H Donor-Akzeptor Formation F B F F H N H H Electronegativity Electronegativity and Atomic Size Bond Polarity Tt Average Bond Energies (kJ/mol) Enthalpy Changes for Reactions the Born-Haber detour Average Bond Lengths (pm) 1 pm = 10-12 m...
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lecture 9-2 - number of bonding electrons) Rules for Formal...

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