Unformatted text preview: il spills) spray out nutrient
to allow bacterium to grow + oil eating bacterium + jump start it = can clean out oil spill (ex. gulf Mexico oil spill)-big clumps harder to digest-small organisms
can eat that up
-in the absence of oxygen, anaerobic environemnt (2 options for survival) fermentation or anaerobic respriation. how to know which is prevalent? will vary
between organisms. some are obligate fermentative. they will have substrate level phosphorylation and minimal proton motive force for making ATP (mostly
taxonomy that contributes to what happens). if use anaerobic respiration then they MUST use oxidase which requires an electron acceptor. nitrate reductase
(nitrate --> nitrite) absolute requirement that nitrate be present in the media. fermentation has no absolute requirement (waste organic is present).
-nitrogen metabolism-in nitrogen metabolism-dominant form of nitrogen in the environment is organic nitrogen. DNA, RNA=organic nitrogen. use a protease to
break up the proteins (protease is secreted) all happens outside cell. protease used to create AA. AA imported by solute transport system. Under beta-oxidation,
the organism that can eat oil, there are AA transporters. once they are imported, you can deaminate them and feed into carbon metabolism (dominant organic
piece) how to use nitrate the same way. when nitrate is present and oxygen (nitrate --> nitrite). have to pump in some electrons (energy requiring) go from nitrite
to ammonia (require more energy 6e) usually reduced. if no nitrate in the medium, no reason to have nitrate reductase. different from anaerobic respiration.
ammonia needed to survive. nitrate assimilation two step process, 2 distinct enzymes, pump in energy oxidized to reductive form, nitrate is oxidized, ammonia is
reduced. count up oxygen and hydrogens. Lots of oxygens, few hydrogens (oxidized) lots of hydrogens, few oxygens (reduced).
-multiple different ways to create ammonia. 1 (organic) 2 (nitrate assimilation) 3 (nitrogenous reaction)-requires the 3 supporting pieces 1. lots of energy 2.
nitrogenase enzyme 3. no oxygen. Review'...
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