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Why does hb lose anity for o2 at higher temperatures

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Unformatted text preview: nchioles respond to epinephrine –  How can this be manipulated with drugs? Breathing efficiently •  Efficiency of heart is measured by CO •  Efficiency of ven(la(on is measured by total pulmonary ven(la(on (TPV, also known as minute volume) –  TPV = ven(la(on rate X (dal volume •  12 breaths per minute X 500 mL breath = 6000mL/min •  Alveolar ven(la(on is beoer indicator of how much fresh air is “used” because there is “dead space” of about 150 mL –  Conduc(ng airways do not exchange gas with blood Tidal Vol (mL) Ven8la8on rage (breaths/min) Total pulmonary ven8la8on (mL/min) Fresh air to alveoli (mL) Alveolar ven8la8on (mL/min) 500 (normal) 12 (normal) 6000 350 4200 300 (shallow) 20 (rapid) 750 (deep) 8 (slow) In addi(on to more widespread control (above), control can also occur involuntarily at the local point of each individual alveoli •  The changing thickness of epithelial wall in alveoli further manipulates breathing Gas Exchange •  If diffusion of gases between alveoli and blood is impaired, or oxygen transport in blood is inadequate: hypoxia –  Can lead to hypercapnia (elevated levels of CO2) •  To avoid this, body uses sensors that monitor: –  Oxygen: arterial oxygen delivery –  CO2: high CO2 depresses CNS, elevated CO2 causes acidosis –  pH: ven(la(on alters pH, pH extremes can denature proteins Normal levels of O2 and CO2 In body, low O2 can lead to several different states of hypoxia Gas flow •  Gases diffuse down their concentra(on gradients –  Low alveolar O2 decreases oxygen uptake –  Low (impair...
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