East African CivilizationsEgyptMonarchy/ HierarchyPolytheisticPyramids-Tomb for the pharaoh to protect them on their journey to the afterlife.Part of material culture.Nubia- Contact with Egypt from early millennia.CultureGrain production & MonarchyTransplanted to Egypt.Ivory, Ebony, Leopard Pelts, SlavesHostage SystemEducate the children of a neighboring state in your country in your way of life and send them back culturally similar to your nation. Independence- New kingdom in their own territory due to the weakening of Egypt politically and militarily. Kush/ Capitol-KermaPiankhy—750BC/23rd DynastyLasts until the invasion of Assyrians (modern day Iraq) until 663 BCE, Kush still persists for another thousand years. Meroe/Commerce- Nubia force to move after war in 540BCEPosition on the Nile gives them excellent access to trade. Important economic power.Smelting technology
New cultural innovations/script & architectureThrive till about the rise and fall of the Roman Empire. 23BCE invaded by Romans but don’t fall apart till the Romans fall apart.Militarily wiped out in Meroe by the Noba, immediately after the Noba move in they are wiped out by Axum.Axum (4th Century CE)Axum is considered very Cosmopolitan. First Christian Empire.Axum removed by the Moors West Africa Civilization Cont. Songhai (1464-1591 CE)Sunni AliAskia Muhammad Toure (r. 1492-1528)Expansion/ Sahara—Mali—HausalandIslamic InfluencesFall/Pourtuguese—Slave trade1591 MoroccoForest Region-west coast of Africa from Senegal to Cameroon No records
CulturePrehistoric= ~500BCENok/Nigeria-Iron and terra cottaIfe/Yoruba—11th centuryThornton reading.Social hierarchy and slaveryClasses of individuals. Soldiers scribes priest, artisans, slaves. Not what we think as slavery. A different social class different than western slavery.A lot less common, mostly war captives or children of war captives.Islamic slave holders are expected to convert slaves to Islam and teach them Arabic.Even in non Islamic regions its illegal to sell a child away from the slave parents.Slaves more like assistants.Slavery culture device for bringing others into your culture, great-grandchildren will probably be citizens, not perpetual.Share same material culture as their owners, bought a slave as a helper, live like free people and sometime outrank them.ReligionIslam v. Local ReligionLiterature/ Oral history and Griots.