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EastAsianColloquiumFinalReview

EastAsianColloquiumFinalReview - Confucius Mencius Lao Zi...

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Confucius Filial piety more important than obeying laws Be wealthy when the Way prevails; be poor and don’t be an official when state is corrupt Small man wants monetary profit; gentleman wants personal profit (wisdom, filial piety, joy) Sages are very rare – even Confucius isn’t – they are proactive – Yao and Shun? (revere past) Trust, then arms, then food Names must be rectified, otherwise chaos will ensue “The gentleman understands what is moral. The small man understands what is profitable.” The sage is one who “gave extensively to the common people and brought help to the multitude” One who “cannot make himself correct [has no business] with making others correct” “The virtue of the gentleman is like wind; the virtue of the small man is like grass. Let the wind blow over the grass and it is sure to bend” Mencius Human nature is good (discussed with Gao Zi) King Wen & Wu are good; Yu and Li are bad Qi – two kinds – flood-like qi unites rightness as the Way and must be cultivated throughout life; individual’s qi allows man to be moral – same in everyone Will is the commander of qi; one stops when other flows Rulers must be benevolent, concern himself with subjects “human nature is good just as water seeks low ground” “by splashing [water] one can make it shoot up […] and by forcing it one can make it stay on a hill” Lao Zi/ Zhuang Zi Daoism Do nothing and the Way will prevail Natural order of things – ordered Sage teaches by example, not proactive People should not be educated – difficult Names cause harmful and false limitations “the sage keeps to the deed that consists in taking no action and practices the teaching that uses no words” “and the people are transformed of themselves” “words exist because of meaning; once you’ve gotten the meaning, you can forget the words.” Han Fei Zi/ Xun Zi Legalism Past is irrelevant – what worked then will not work now Scholars are unworthy, useless Rites are sign of doom – which conflicting rites to follow? They always conflict also with the law – cause disorder Ruler gets good rep, ministers get blame – judge, not act; has absolute power, never lets ministers borrow power; never shows desires so ministers will be true; nobody can be trusted, even family: everyone profits from your loss Righteousness = failure of state Human nature is evil; rites are utilitarian, not moral
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