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CHAPTER 2: THE CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS OF LIFE Nitric Oxide – chemical in dynamite, lowers blood pressure, increases blood flow 2.1 WHAT IS MATTER? Chemistry – science dealing with properties and transformations of all forms of matter Chemical reactions – they transform pure substances into others, w/o changing total matter Elements – pure substances that can’t be converted into simpler substances in chemical reactions All have standard one/two letter abbrev. Atoms – what elements are composed of – smallest units that still have elemental properties Nuclear reactions – elements can be changed/created by ~; high-energy transformations of individual atoms Molecule – stable assembly of two or more atoms; elements in fixed ratio Compounds – pure substances forged in chemical reactions from two or more different elements Unlike the elements that compose it; elements in fixed ratio Mixture – most matter is a ~ of different compounds; elements not in fixed ratio WHAT IS SPECIAL ABOUT THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE? Two aspects of living matter distinguishes it from non-living matter Elaborate organization of the molecules Limited number of kinds of molecules that make up living matter 2.2 WHAT DETERMINES THE PROPERTIES OF AN ATOM?
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOL BC1001 taught by Professor Shepard during the Fall '06 term at Columbia.

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