EAExam2StudyGuide

EAExam2StudyGuide - CHINA CANTON SYSTEM (1760-1842) It...

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CHINA CANTON SYSTEM (1760-1842) It served as a means for China to control trade within its own country. The Canton System limited the ports to which the British traders could bring in goods to China (Canton, namely). Despite Chinese efforts to keep European traders and citizens within the area of Macao, European trade spread throughout China and threatened to virtually take over the country through the practice of Sphere of Influence imperialism. It also forbade any direct trading between British merchants and Chinese civilians; instead, the British merchants had to trade with the Chinese merchants, who then would sell those goods to the Chinese people. Despite Britain's growing apprehension with the Canton System, the selling of opium appeased British resentment for the system, and it remained intact until the Opium Wars, which established "treaty ports" in accordance with the Treaty of Nanking, which were ruled not by Chinese laws but rather the laws of the specific country that controlled each port. Britain got their opium from their colony India. CHEN HONGMOU (1696-1771) a Chinese provincial governor, scholar, and philosopher. Although enjoying no great influence during his lifetime, he has been singled out by others as a model official. Chen served his entire career as a governor, and was noted for the longest total service and most provincial posts than any other official during the Qing dynasty. In their work Anthology of Qing Statecraft Writings, He Changling and Wei Yuan praised him as an exemplary official, being surpassed only by Gu Yanwu. Chen considered himself a disciple of Zhu Xi, but condemned various types of intellectual partisanship. His essays were very progressive for his time - in his vigorous advocation of education for people everywhere, he was one of the first philosophers to clearly state the idea that women and non-Chinese tribes could, and should, receive the same education has Han Chinese men. He condemned two trends in learning at that time: acquiring literary polish without understanding the true meaning, and not applying the classics in the real world. COMMUNITY COMPACTS (originated 12 th century Song) Both China and Choson Korea developed community compacts or social contracts for the local community. The compacts varied greatly from village to village, but there was one common feature: the coercive power of surveillance. Members of the compact or all the citizens in the community were given the duty of watching each other and reporting violations of law and social mores. The fact that neighbor was known to watch neighbor would induce modification of behavior. The idea was originally Zhu Xi’s – a neo-Confucian philosopher, and then later adapted by Wang Yangming and other 16 th century philosophers. Liang wanted this so that the power structure would be more even and the lower society would be more politically active. The two most famous Choson Neo-Confucian theorists (Yi Ik and Yi Hwang) both wrote community
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ASCE V2002 taught by Professor Ross during the Fall '06 term at Columbia.

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EAExam2StudyGuide - CHINA CANTON SYSTEM (1760-1842) It...

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