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mountains notes - 3 Strike-Slip Faults(e.g san andreas a...

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I. Folds A) Parts of a Fold 1) axis a) a median plane along the crest of a structure 2) Limbs a) sides of a fold B) Fold Names 1) Anticline Characteristics a) rocks are older towards the axis b) layers are curved c) limbs dip away from the axis 2) Syncline Characteristics a) younger towards the axis b) limbs dip toward the axis typical of convergent zones, compression of sedimentary rocks = anticlines and synclines 3) Monocline a) one limb II. Fractures A) Joints 1) def: crack where no appreciable movement has occurred 2) large scale fractures indicate past stress histories of rocks B) Fault 1) def: displacement of rock on either side of a fracture 2) dip-slip a) vertical offset b) headwall/hanging wall: rock that’s above the fault c) foot wall: rock below the fault (the one you would be walking on d) detachment fault: normal fault with a low angle (low-angle normal) e) thrust fault: reverse fault with a low angle (low-angle reverse) i) dozens of thrusts faults below ground level in so-cal
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Unformatted text preview: 3) Strike-Slip Faults (e.g. san andreas) a) horizontal offset 4) Fault Indicators a) offset b) fault gouge i) pulverized and demolished surfaces c) Slickenside ii) polished and striated surface produced by fault movement IV. Orogenic Processes A) fold -- and – thrust mtn ranges (convergent plate edges, good examples: Canadian rockies, himalyas, appalacian mtn) 1) form from thick predominantly marine layers of sediment a) usually greater than 15,000 m or more 2) strata deformed by compression B) Volcanic Mtn Ranges 1) Volcanic Arc a) cascades b) andes 2) Island Arc a) japan b) aluetians 3) Hot Spot a) Hawaii b) Gallapagos c) Yellowstone 4) Spreading Center (MORiS) a) mid atlantic b) east pacific rise C) Fault Block Mtn Ranges 1) extension of crust auses batholith to be rotated up above surface level ex) sierra nevada...
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