2007The Age of Revolutions II

2007The Age of Revolutions II - The Age of Revolutions II...

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The Age of Revolutions II
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Out of the Enlightenment Ideas of liberty, equality and freedom Put into practice during in the late eighteenth century BUT again be careful about teleological metanarrative – not a smooth inevitable progress towards democracy.
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American Revolution Propelled by bourgeoisie Immediate origin increased taxes Seven Years War (1756-1763), Britain took east of Mississippi but British debt doubled. Needed to increase colonial taxation e.g. Stamp Act 1765. Not unreasonable – Colonists taxes very low around 2 shillings compared to 26 shillings. So really about sovereignty not taxes
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Outbreak of Revolutionary War 1774, First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia. Radicals will not compromise with the crown and British Parliament will not compromise with their colonists. 1775 fighting breaks out in Concord and Lexington 1776 Declaration of Independence.
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The French and the American Revolutionary War By 1777 French volunteers like the Marquis de Lafayette.1780 French, Spanish and Dutch at war with Britain.
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The Treaty of Paris 1783 Severe reverses in India. Time to cut loses, willing to offer independence. Rivalries of the old world lead to independence in the new.
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Enlightenment Ideas in New American Government Rule by Representative government. Checks and balances – executive, legislative and judicial branches would balance one another. Federal checked by the states. Constitution amended in 1789to safeguard individual rights. English law – trial by jury, due process, right to assemble Enlightenment – freedoms of speech, press and religion.
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Not Democracy Equality before the law. Not equal right of political participation. Not equal wealth Not equality between sexes Not equality for slaves
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The American Revolution and France 1. French officers come home with love of liberty and republicanism. 2. American Constitution the hottest topic in salons. But French revolution much more radical and complex. 3. Financial difficulties paying for American Revolution – France’s debt – 50% annual budget on interest.
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The French tax system – The Three Estates
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The Bourgeoisie Third Estate not just peasants Bourgeoisie – lawyers, doctors, merchants and business men. Wealthy but no more political power than peasants.
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The Problems of Louis XVI Needed to overhaul tax system to pay debts from American Revolution.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIS 1000 taught by Professor Cooper during the Spring '08 term at St. Johns Duplicate.

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2007The Age of Revolutions II - The Age of Revolutions II...

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