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Biollogy 124 (Cusic) Exam I Notes

Biollogy 124 (Cusic) Exam I Notes - Chapter 29 Plant...

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Chapter 29 Plant Kingdom o Characteristics of plant cells Cell wall made up of cellulose (glucose) Chloroplast for photosynthesis Stored polysaccharide sugar as starch Large central vacuole that store mostly water Appeared around 500 millions years o Shared characteristics with charophyceans Charophyceans – green algae 4 things in common rose shape complex where they make cellulose peroxisomes enzyme – minimize the loss of organic materials in photorespiration sperm that has flagella phragmoplast – involved in the mitotic division live in shallow water and develop sporopollenin , a protective case that prevent the embryos from drying out o Differences from the charophyceans Apical Meristems at the shoots and roots Alternation of generations Two life cycles of both multicellular Diploid multicellular (sporophyte) – spores (haploid) – mitosis – gametes – zygote (diploid) Produce gametes through mitosis Tough walled spores produced in sporangia for protection Multicellular gametangia make sperm and egg Fertilization in female part (archegonium) Multicellular dependent embryos o Placental transfer cell – transfer nutrients for embryos o Necessary land adaptations Cuticle – waxy covering to prevent water loss Stomata – controlled holes for breathing Lignin – secondary growth of plant (wood) to support gravity Pollination – carry by wind and animals Keep the embryos inside the female to keep it moist Vascular development – xylem (water and mineral) and phloem (sugar, peptide, amino acid) Defense mechanism – thorns, poison, bad taste, pigment (against UV ray) o Major periods of plant evolution Origin of land plants – about 475 mya Original of vascular plants – about 420 mya Origin of seed plants – about 360 mya
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Reduction of haploid generation and the dominant of the diploid o Nonvascular vs. vascular plants Nonvascular – bryophytes Dominant gametophyte (haploid) No true leaves, stems, or roots Phylum Hepatophyta – liverworts (most primitive) Phylum Anthocerophyta – hornworts o More advance and similar to vascular plants Phylum Bryophyta – mosses (need water for flagellated sperm) uptake water through diffusion Vascular – tracheophytes Dominant sporophyte (diploid) o The bryophytes – life cycle of the moss Male gametophyte (antheridia) sperm releases through rain into the female gametophyte (archegonia) Fertilization occur to become zygote – embryo Female gametophytes have sporangium to produce spore through meiosis; peristome eject the spores Worts reproduce asexual Gemmae – reproductive organ o The Tracheophytes Have vascular system that’s best adapted to land Phloem and xylem help support the structure of plants Xylem – when mature, carry water and mineral, only a pipe of cell wall Lignin support the cell wall
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Biollogy 124 (Cusic) Exam I Notes - Chapter 29 Plant...

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