Estee WardMESA 2019/24/071.In his article, Orientalism in Crisis, Anouar Abdel-Malek discusses the primary foundations of Orientalism, and the flaws in their basic structure that force Orientalists to reevaluate their studies and recognize that the methods of Orientalism must be “thought anew” (Abdel-Malek, 53). He opens with a series of rhetorical questions that seek to define the Orientalist’s nature: “What are his motivations? What occupies him? What objectives does he set himself to attain?” (Abdel-Malek, 48). He answers each question with an excerpt from early Orientalist writings. These excerpts are intended to help the reader understand the European outlook on the Orient from the late 19thto mid 20thcentury. This outlook is one of condescension; therefore, Abdel-Malek coins this period as “the epoch of European hegemony” (Abdel-Malek, 49).Abdel-Malek goes onto explain that Orientalism can be divided into two main schools of thought: the traditional and the politico-philosophical. Traditional Orientalism is based solely on the careful
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