K201week2

K201week2 - K201 Week 2 Hardware and software Hardware...

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K201 Week 2
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Hardware and software Hardware consists of physical devices associated with a computer system Software is the set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks.
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Hardware basics Computer is an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate and store data CPU (microprocessor) is the actual hardware that interpret and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together. Contains two parts: control unit and ALU unit
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Inside the CPU The control unit interpret software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do based on software instructions. The ALU unit performs all arithmetic and logic. ALU responds to control unit and does whatever it dictates
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More cycles per second means faster processing. MHz (megahertz) is the number of millions of CPU cycles per second GHz (gigahertz) is the number of billions of CPU cycles per second.
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CPU speed factors Clock speed: speed of internal clock of the CPU sets the pace at which operations proceed. Measured in GHz and MHz. Word length: number of bits that can be processed at one time. 1- on and 0-off. 8 bits make 1 byte Bus width: size of internal electrical pathway along which signals are sent. The wider bus can send more data Chip line width. The distance between transistors on a chip. The short the chip line width, the faster the chip.
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Advances in CPU design Complex instruction set computers: a type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or more instruction enough to carry out most computations directly Reduced instruction set computer chips: limit number of instructions the CPU can execute to increase processing speed. Virtualization: is a protected memory space created by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual machines that can run its own programs isolated from another machine.
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Primary storage Is the computers main memory which consists of RAM, cache memory, and ROM. RAM ( random access memory) is computers primary working memory in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via processors high speed external data bus. Read/write memory Volatile.
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Small unit of ultra-fast memory that is used to store recently accessed or frequently accessed data so that the CPU does not have to retrieve it from slower memory circuits. Built directly into CPU circuits:
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K201week2 - K201 Week 2 Hardware and software Hardware...

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