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CHAPTER 11 APPLICATIONS AND PROCESSING OF METAL ALLOYS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 11.1 This question asks that we list four classifications of steels, and, for each, to describe properties and cite typical applications. Low-Carbon SteelsProperties: nonresponsive to heat treatments; relatively soft and weak; machinable and weldable. Typical applications: automobile bodies, structural shapes, pipelines, buildings, bridges, and tin cans. Medium-Carbon SteelsProperties: heat treatable, relatively large combinations of mechanical characteristics. Typical applications: railway wheels and tracks, gears, crankshafts, and machine parts. High-Carbon SteelsProperties: hard, strong, and relatively brittle. Typical applications: chisels, hammers, knives, and hacksaw blades. High-Alloy Steels(Stainless and Tool) Properties: hard and wear resistant; resistant to corrosion in a large variety of environments. Typical applications: cutting tools, drills, cutlery, food processing, and surgical tools. 11.2 (a) Ferrous alloys are used extensively because: 1) Iron ores exist in abundant quantities. 2) Economical extraction, refining, and fabrication techniques are available. 3) The alloys may be tailored to have a wide range of properties. (b) Disadvantages of ferrous alloys are: 1) They are susceptible to corrosion. 2) They have relatively high densities. 3) They have relatively low electrical conductivities. 11.3 Ferritic and austenitic stainless steels are not heat treatable since "heat treatable" is taken to mean that martensite may be made to form with relative ease upon quenching austenite from an elevated temperature. 1
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