EXP2.pdf - Exp-2 Bouncing Ball experiment OBJECTIVE 1...

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1 Exp-2: Bouncing Ball experiment OBJECTIVE: 1. Observe the potential and kinetic energy conversion and dissipation of total energy due to friction, etc. 2. Observe the coefficient of bouncing for different balls. APPARATUS: Meter scale, Tape, Assorted types of balls, for example tennis ball, golf ball and table tennis ball THEORY: The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be transformed . In the Bouncing Ball Drop experiment, we would see energy transformation. Before dropping a ball, you must lift it up from its’ resting surface. When you do this, you are transferring energy from your muscles to the ball. You are giving the ball potential energy , specifically gravitational potential energy . Gravitational potential energy (PE) is the energy gained by an object as its height above ground level increases. An object’s GPE is determined using this formula: PE = height × mass × acceleration due to gravity, g Objects that are the same weight will gain more GPE the higher they are positioned. If one object is heavier than the other at the same height, the heavier object will have more GPE. As the ball falls towards the ground, its gravitational potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy (KE) . Kinetic energy is the energy of mass in motion. An object that has motion (velocity v ) no matter the direction has kinetic energy. KE = 1 2 𝑚𝑣 2 The kinetic energy of the ball will continue increasing as the ball gains momentum, until it finally collides with a surface (floor). At the floor, PE must equal the kinetic energy on impact, PE = KE, thus velocity of the falling ball, 𝑣 = √2𝑔ℎ Newton’s third law says that the floor will then push back on the ball, sending it rising. Thus KE will transform to PE again to send the ball at bounce height.

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