Psych 119-chapter 3

Psych 119-chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Researching Sex &...

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Researching Sex  Chapter 3 Sex & Gender: An Introduction (5 th Edition) Hilary M. Lips
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Two Approaches to Knowledge Two Approaches to Knowledge Logical Positivism Assumes reality is independent of the knower If the researcher is careful, it is possible to arrive at unbiased truth Social Constructionism Assumes researchers construct knowledge that is influenced by the social context of their inquiry There is no such thing as pure, unbiased truth
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Research Methods Research Methods I. Descriptive methods Case history Narrative approach Phenomenological method Discourse analysis Naturalistic observation –real life setting Survey methods
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Research Methods Research Methods Experimental Methods Researcher directly manipulates the independent variable(s) Researcher measures the dependent variable(s) Allows the researcher to conclude that changes in the IV caused changes in the DV BUT … sex cannot really be an independent variable. Why? Control – an experiment using the experimental method
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The Experimental Method. The experiment diagrammed below is designed to test the effect of exercise during pregnancy on physical problems and complaints. a t t h r e e m o n t h s Pop. Sample randomly assigned to either Independent Variable Dependent Variables : Every week for 6 months, measure 1. Exercise group has significantly fewer symptoms than No-Exercise group 2. No significant differences in symptoms between groups 3. No-Exercise group has significantly fewer symptoms than Exercise group P o s s i b l e F i n d i n g s Possible Conclusions: No-Exercise group Exercise group Blood pressure, Self-reports: headaches, backache, fatigue Blood pressure, Self-reports: headaches, backache, fatigue Exercise reduces symptoms No effect of exercise has been found Exercise increases symptoms P r e g n a n t W o m e n
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“Heavy-Duty” Research Strategies Longitudinal studies : following the same research participants over an extended
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Psych 119-chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Researching Sex &...

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