2011 Slide Set II Spr08

2011 Slide Set II Spr08 - SLIDE SET II I. The Genetic Basis...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
I. The Genetic Basis of Development A. Cellular processes guiding development 1. cell division 2. cell differentiation 3. morphogenesis B. How cells differentiate 1. genomic equivalence 2. evidence for genomic equivalence a. totipotency and cloning i. in plants ii. in animals b. stem cells i. embryonic ii. adult 3. molecular processes a. determination i. via cytoplasmic determinants (CDs) ii. via induction by cell signaling SLIDE SET II
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
SLIDE SET II (cont’d.) Animal Development I. General Pattern II. Gametes III. Fertilization IV. Cleavage V. Gastrulation & morphogenesis A. Introduction B. Example: gastrulation 1. sea urchin 2. frog 3. chick
Background image of page 2
Fig. 21.1 Proper embryonic development requires that the correct _______ are expressed at the correct ______ and in the correct ________ . Fig. 21.13
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
A. Cellular processes guiding embryonic development For a single, fertilized egg cell (= _________ ) to develop into a multicellular embryo (later, adult) requires: zygote multicellular embryo A. cell ________ (mitosis) C. _______________ B. cell __________________
Background image of page 4
A. Cellular processes guiding embryonic development 1. Cell division (mitosis) - ________________________________________ - ________________________________________
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
A. Cellular processes guiding embryonic development 2. Cell differentiation - _______________________________________________ - e.g., skin cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, etc. 3. Morphogenesis - the formation of a ___________ : an anterior-posterior axis a dorsal-ventral axis - later, the formation of _____________________________ - facilitated by continued gene regulation & complex cell movements
Background image of page 6
B. Processes guiding (embryonic) cell differentiation 1. Genomic equivalence: _________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2. Evidence for genomic equivalence a. ____________________ : the potential of a cell to differentiate into ANY type of cell i.e., no genes are irreversibly turned off
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
a. i. totipotency in plants (e.g., carrot root cells) Fig. 21.5 “Cloned” adult is ____________________ to “parent” Cloning: ________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
Background image of page 8
a. ii. totipotency in animals (1) __________________________________ (e.g., frogs) Fig. 21.6 Because cells from later developmental stages have __________________ __________________
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
a. ii. totipotency in animals (2) _______________________________ (e.g., “Dolly”) Fig. 21.7 ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Inefficient, but thus far some success with mice, cats, cows, horses, pigs….humans? Some abnormalities arise possibly due to ________________________ ” of the original transplanted nuclear genome e.g., some DNA remains methylated e.g., some histones remain acetylated
Background image of page 10
b. stem cells: _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ i. _____________ stem cells: ___________ (can be induced to differentiate into ANY cell type) ii. _____ stem cells: ________ (can be induced to differentiate into some, but not all, cell types) e.g., bone marrow cells blood cells iii. therapeutic uses: _________________________________ e.g., diabetes (pancreatic, insulin-producing cells) e.g., spinal cord injuries? e.g., brain cells? (Parkinson’s & Huntington’s diseases)
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Fig. 21.9
Background image of page 12
B. 3. Molecular processes underlying (embryonic) cell differentiation (i.e., gene regulation) a. ______________: a process by which a cell differentiates & ultimately meets its “_____” (or cell type) by expressing a unique set of genes. i.) can be achieved via different maternal ______________________ (____) that are asymmetrically distributed during cell division & permit differential gene expression in daughter cells ii.) can be achieved via _________ of nearby cells by cell-cell signaling (signals from one cell are received by a nearby cell and this induces a signal transduction pathway Fig. 21.11
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
UNIT I: ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT How does a single cell give rise to the a multicellular, differentiated organism?
Background image of page 14
Image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 72

2011 Slide Set II Spr08 - SLIDE SET II I. The Genetic Basis...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 15. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online