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BSC 20011 UNIT I ASSIGNMENT (25 points) SPRING 2008 Name, please: _______________________ Last 4 of SS#: ___________ The purpose of these assignments is to “encourage” you to review your notes and text material, and to integrate numerous facts and terms into broad but meaningful concepts. Please try and work on your own at first, but don’t hesitate to ask for assistance from me or your TAs. If you work with a fellow student, please be sure to frame your answers in your own words – we will call you to task on this and instances of copying will be severely penalized. This assignment is due at the beginning of class on Jan. 24th. We will randomly select questions to grade and post the answers prior to your Unit I exam. – Dr. Spears 1) a) Compare and contrast the structure and function of (i) DNA, (ii) mRNA, and (iii) protein. DNA is a double-stranded molecule that encodes hereditary information and passes it on. Each strand is composed of nucleotides and sugar phosphate backbones. The two strands are also connected by hydrogen bonds. These nucleotides contain the genetic information. RNA is a single stranded molecule, and mRNA is transcribed from DNA and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis. The nitrogenous bases are the same as DNA, with the exception of thymine, which is replaced with uracil. As in DNA, the information is encoded in the nucleotides. Proteins are amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. The gene determines the sequence of amino that make up the protein. b) For eukaryotes, what is the function of (i) replication, and where does it occur, (ii) transcription, and where does it occur, and (iii) translation, and where does it occur? In opposition to the bacterial chromosome, a eukaryotic chromosome has multiple replication origins whereas the bacterial chromosome has a single origin. These replication bubbles occur and fuse to help speed up the replication of DNA molecules. Replication is an exact clone of the DNA strand so that each new cell has a set of information to make new proteins from. In cells a cytoplasmic enzyme adds a residue, allowing translation to begin during embryonic development. In a eukaryotic cell, translation of all mRNA may be regulated simultaneously. This type of control is usually involved with the activation or inactivation of a protein factor that would lead to translation. Translation occurs when tRNA delivers amino acids to the mRNA at the ribosome to create new proteins. This occurs in the cytoplasm. Protein-protein interactions are crucial to the initiation of eukaryotic transcription. Only when this intiation is complete can the polymerase move down the strand to produce a complementary strand of RNA. In eukaryotes, transcription relies on the interaction of control elements and proteins that become specific transcription factors. In the nucleus, transcription produces RNA nucleoproteins. c)
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course BIO bsc2011L taught by Professor Spears during the Spring '08 term at FSU.

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