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Dr. Stretton note 1 - Hi folks Welcome back Here is a slug...

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Hi folks, Welcome back! Here is a slug of material that I will get part-way through on Wednesday, depending on how much time the administrative material to be presented at the beginning of the first lecture will take. I have sent it as a regular email message, plus as attached Word files, both as RTF and .doc files. Between these you should receive at least one readable document. Let me know if you have problems. I want you to do the reading before lecture, preferable both the notes and the text. You should certainly study the figures I list before each lecture. Please note that the notes are not a one-to-one mapping of the lecture; they are usually fairly close, but there will be differences. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR EVERYTHING I TELL YOU IN LECTURE AND EVERYTHING IN THE NOTES. Anything in lecture AND the notes is fair game for an exam question. Looking forward to making your acquaintance on Wednesday. Best, Tony Biology 152 Animal Physiology Lecture 1 January 23, 2008 Reading: Ch 40 Figures to look at before lecture: 40.4 40.5 (all parts) 40.6 40.11 40.21 . In this lecture I'm going to introduce the subject of animal physiology, which will be the topic of the next 16 lectures. Mostly we'll be talking about mammals, and humans in particular for a couple of reasons - firstly humans are the most studied organism on Earth so we know a lot about ourselves, and secondly because of the insights that we get from the analysis of disease - from time to time in these lectures we'll flash across to the medical interest. The theme of how structure underlies function will recur many times. Animals are multicellular organisms, and I think you all know some of the advantages of multicellularity. In a single cell organism, all functions of the cell that involve interactions with the outside world are carried out across the external membrane of the cell. These are things like your
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absorption of food, your absorption of oxygen and getting rid of your waste products. However, there is a limit to the size you can get to be if you are a single celled organism and you want to continue to do all of those functions efficiently. This is simply because the larger you get your volume goes up as the cube of your radius and your surface area goes up as the square of the radius, so your surface to volume ratio goes down as your radius goes up. So the bigger the cell, the harder it becomes to get enough transfer over the outside surface of the cell to keep the organism in good shape. The solution that animals have come up with that allows them to be big is to be multicellular and to develop different cell types that are used to make organ systems that are specialized for each transfer task. Not surprisingly, many of these organ systems have specializations that result in a huge increase of surface area to increase the efficiency of transfer, and we'll talk about this in great detail later. Text fig. 40.4 illustrates this idea, although the increase in surface area is very much more dramatic than is shown in this diagram. For example, the typical human
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