Ch 5 development psych - Chapter 5 Outline for Note Taking Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex o Enables children to focus attention and curb

Ch 5 development psych - Chapter 5 Outline for Note Taking...

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Chapter 5 Outline for Note Taking Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex o Enables children to focus attention and curb impulsiveness o Before such maturation, many young children jump from task to task; they cannot stay quiet o Others act in the opposite way: In a phenomenon called perseveration, some children persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action, unable to quit. Brain Development o Selective attention: ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others o Automatization: process in which repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine Improved Motor Skills o By age 6, most North Americans ride tricycles; climb ladders, pump their legs on swings, and throw, catch, and kick balls o Muscle growth, brain maturation, and guided practice advance every gross motor skill o Practice improves dexterity and advances fine motor skills, which involve small body movements Fine Motor Skills o More difficult to master than gross motor skills o Many involve two hands and both sides of the brain o Typically mature about 6 months earlier in girls than boys Body Changes o Nutrition Children need far fewer calories per pound of body weight than infants do Obesity is a more frequent problem than malnutrition Children in low-income families are especially vulnerable to obesity- cultures still guard against under nutrition and parents may rely on fast food Overfeeding is causing an epidemics of illnesses associated with obesity Such as heart disease and diabetes Why Childhood Obesity? o Some media outlets are reaching to find ways to speak to children about the fight against childhood obesity o Heredity: can be genetically predisposed o Parenting: infants not breast fed, too much T.V., drink soda, no exercise, poor family eating habits o Social influences: school lunches, snack machines, subsidies for corn oil but not fresh veggies, food advertising, etc. Health Problems in Middle Childhood o Asthma PY 212
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A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that makes it difficult to breathe. Signs and symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing Some experts suggest a hygiene hypothesis for the current increase in all allergies Contemporary children are overprotected from viruses and bacteria
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