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2.28-3.7 - International Relations 2.28-3.7...

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International Relations 2.28-3.7 Traits/Dimensions We can consider how Pres. Bush would turn out based on how he operated as Governor 1) What is the cognitive styl e of a leader? How do they acquire information? 2) What is their sense of efficacy and competence ? how confident are leaders in their own decisions? Do they delegate? 3) Political conflict Some leaders have very formal style wants information boiled down Some have very competitive style wants to see/hear raw reality and big picture President plays more direct role in this system than a formal one this system can also wear people down if every issue is debated out Collegial style is a mix of formal and competitive different points of view exist, but ideas are oven hashed out “outside of room” Ronald Reagan relied on formal style Almost all presidents except Jimmy Carter were, to a degree, removed from decision making When Iran-Contra broke out, critics said he had to change his style of governing Bill Clinton admin., according to Woodward’s The Agenda : Clinton always wanted to engage in lower-level debates, so formal style was futile because he would always want to start debate again If President uses competitive style , then his worldview is very important If President uses formal style , then certain individuals in administration are more powerful (e.g. Chief of Staff may be more important to study than the president) Political scientist Barber argued that he could predict how a presidency would operate: First, energy of the president: Active Passive Second, attitude towards politics Positive Negative
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Active energy Passive energy Positive view of politics Confident (FDR, JFK, Clinton) Strong need for affection (Ronald Reagan) Negative view of politics Active but hate job (Richard Nixon, LBJ) Low self-confidence (Calvin Coolidge) Possible faults of Barber model -all liberal Democrats in Active/Positive box -LBJ loved politics probably ends up in “negative” b/c of Vietnam War Comparison of Different Approaches to the Study of Individuals METHOD STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Biography Detail Focus on specifics of each individual Generalize? Get enough information? Aberrant Personality Theory based Can generalize Want assume leader ill? Information (perhaps from childhood) Traits/Dimensions Less information needed Better sources “Closer” to political career Superficial After the fact 3.2 Why/how international conflict begins 1816-2001: How often do countries consciously use military forces? 2331 times (2331 “disputes”)
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2.28-3.7 - International Relations 2.28-3.7...

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