pg 936-953 - Pages 936-953 PROFESSIONAL SPORTS AND...

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Pages 936-953 PROFESSIONAL SPORTS AND ORGANIZED LEISURE Male athletes banded together to organize team sports that eventually replaced village games o Large audiences now backed a particular team, as soccer, rugby and cricket drew mass followings and integrated migrants as well as the lower and higher classes into a common culture Tour de France was first held in 1903 Team sports help differentiate male and female spheres and thus promoted a social order based on distinction between the sexes Working People’s Strategies o Migration some Europeans followed an imperialist pattern of migration, moving well beyond their national borders to those countries where land was being taken from native peoples for white settlements Between 1886 and 1900, half a million Swedes out of a population of 4.75 million quit their country Millions of rural Jews left their villages for economic reasons, but Russian Jews also fled in the face of vicious anti-Semitism Russian mobs brutally attacked Jewish communities Commercial and imperial prosperity determined destinations Most migrants went to North and South America, Australia, and New Zealand, as news of opportunity reached Europe European farm families often received a good deal of their income from husbands or grown sons and daughters who had left Nationalist commentators in Slovakia, Poland, Hungary and other parts of eastern and central Europe bemoaned the loss of ethnic vigor as the young and active departed o Adoption to Industrial Change change in technology and management practices eliminated outmoded jobs and often made the work of those who survived job cuts more difficult Workers complained that new machinery sped up the pace of work to an unrealistic level Stepped-up productivity demanded much more physical exertion to tend and repair machines, often at a faster pace, but workers did not receive additional pay for their extra efforts Employers could increasingly use untrained workers, often women, and pay them less than skilled workers Also, inventions always demanded new skills for those who had to understand work processes or repair machinery Economic change and the periodic recurrence of hard times had uneven consequences for people’s everyday lives Some city workers prospered by comparison to those left behind in rural areas, through a growing number lost the steadiness of traditional artisanal work o Reform Efforts for Working-Class People The cycle of boom and bust, the uneven prosperity of industrialism, and the upheaval of migration caused social problems that many in the middle and upper classes sought to address through reform organizations and charities A Social Darwinist feat that Europeans would lack the fitness to survive in a
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This note was uploaded on 04/08/2008 for the course HIST 1010 taught by Professor Frazier during the Fall '05 term at Western Michigan.

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pg 936-953 - Pages 936-953 PROFESSIONAL SPORTS AND...

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