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pg 992-999, 1003-1014 - Pages 992-999 1003-1014 ROADS TO...

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Pages 992-999; 1003-1014 ROADS TO WAR Competing Alliances and Clashing Ambitions o The Triple Alliance that Bismarck had negotiated among Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy confronted an opposing alliance between France and Russia, created in the 1890s o Constant rivals in Africa, Britain and France edged to the brink of war in 1898 at Fashoda in the Sudan The French government backed away and both nations were frightened into getting along for mutual self-interests and to avoid another Fashoda, they entered into several secret agreements, the first of which guaranteed British claims in Egypt and French claims in Morocco This agreement marked the beginning of the British-French alliance called the Entente Cordiale o Germany’s Imperial Demands Germany under Kaiser William II became dissatisfied with its international status and inflamed rather than calmed the diplomatic atmosphere Germany’s growing industrial might, strode onto the imperial stage with a big appetite for world power Convinced of British hostility toward France, William II used the opportunity presented by the defeat of France’s ally Russia to contest French claims in Morocco William landed in Morocco in 1905, thus challenging French predominance in what became known as the First Moroccan Crisis To resolve the situation, an international conference met in Spain in 1906, where Germany confidently expected to gain concessions and new territories The powers decided to support French rule Germany found itself weak diplomatically and strong economically, a situation that made its leaders more determined to compete for territory abroad When the French finally took over Morocco in 1911, Germany triggered the Second Moroccan Crisis by sending a gunboat to the port of Agadir and demanding concessions from the French o No one back the Germans The British and French now made binding military provisions for the deployment of their forces in case of war, thus strengthening the Entente Cordiale o Crises in the Balkans German statesmen began envisioning creation of a Mitteleuropa (“central Europe,” the Balkans and Turkey) Even without the greedy eyes cast on the Balkans by outside powers, the situation would have been extremely complex given the tensions created by political modernity Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania and Montenegro emerged as autonomous states, almost all of them composed of several ethnicities as well as Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics and Muslims o All these states sought more Ottoman Habsburg territory that included their own ethnic group In the First Balkan War, in 1912, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro joined forces to gain Macedonia and Albania from the Ottomans o Serbia, Greece and Montenegro contested gains in the Second Balkan War in 1913
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o Grievances between the Habsburgs and the Serbs now seemed irreconcilable o The Balkans had become a perilous region along whose borders both Austria-Hungary and Russia stationed increasing
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