Unformatted text preview: fuel users (U.S., China)
new threat: developing countries are catching up (e.g. China, India)
though some was accounted for in Kyoto Protocol
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A Table from the "State of the World" (2006) issued by the World Watch
0.8 Emission per
GDP,PPP (tons per
+67% India 301 0.3 99 +88% Europe 955 2.5 94 +6% Japan 338 2.7 95 +23% Country United
NB: China surpassed U.S. emissions in 2009 (see "Industrial Age" above). Figure 18.x The ozone hole of 2006 broken records in both size and depth. (source: NOAA) Get text from two noaa pdfs.
Figure 18.x Decline in global ozone. Top: Global total ozone values decreased by an average of a
few percent in the last two decades. Between 1980 and 2000, the largest decreases occurred
following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. Bottom: changes in ozone for different latitudes.
The greatest losses that occur each year are over Antarctica. (source: NOAA) Figure 18.x The area of the ozone hole in 2006, compared to the years 1979-2009. The ozone
hole is the region of ozone levels below 220 Dobson Units (UD) located south of 40ºS. Values
below 220 DU represent anthropogenic ozone losses over Antarctica. (source: NASA)
Figure 18.x The minimum ozone is found from total ozone satellite measurements south of 40ºS.
(source: NASA) Figure 18.x Anthropogenic CFC. Because CFCs do not occur naturally in the atmosphere,
increasing CFC production by humans in recent decades has caused rising concentrations in the
atmosphere. Production has decreased after the Montreal agreement but CFCs was projected to
increase before declining because of the residence time in the atmosphere. (source: RU) 18.6 The Ozone Hole
Ozone: solar radiation converts O2 to O3. Protective layer in 10-50km
lack in stratospheric ozone lets carcinogenic UV radiation reach the
Earth's surface, causing skin cancer, cataracts, impaired immune system,
reduced crop yields
stratospheric ozone attacked by human-made CFC and other halogen
ozone "holes": sharp decrease in thickn...
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