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Unformatted text preview: eenhouse gas emission by country in millions of metric tons CO2 Equivalent in
2005. CO2 equivalent emissions from land use change and emissions of CO2, CH3, N2O, PFC,
HFC and SF6 are included. Bunker fuel (i.e. ships) is not. (source: wikipedia)
Figure 18.x Greenhouse gas emission per capita in metric tons per person for each country in
2005. CO2 Equivalent. CO2 equivalent emissions from land use change and emissions of CO2,
CH3, N2O, PFC, HFC and SF6 are included. Bunker fuel (i.e. ships) is not. (source: wikipedia) Figure 18.x Annual fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission, in million metric tons of carbon, for a
variety of non-overlapping regions in the World. Emissions in North America are highest in the
World and account for 25% of total emission (with only 5% of the World’s population).
Emissions in Eastern Europe nearly reached those of North America but dropped dramatically
after the collapse of the USSR at the beginning of the 1990s. On the other hand, emission in
Communist East Asia (incl. China) and India& Southeast Asia skyrocketed. (source: wikipedia)
Figure 18.x Kyoto Protocol participation map 2010. Green indicates countries that have ratified
the treaty. Dark green are Annex I and II countries that have ratified the treaty. Light grey is not
yet decided. Brown is not intention of ratifying (essentially the U.S.). (source: wikipedia) o
o o o
o established in 1997; to be replaced by the Copenhagen protocol in 2009
realization that, in order to stabilize CO2 at 450 ppm, emission would have
to fall below 1990 level
industrial countries have to reduce to 5.2% below 1990 level by 2012
96 countries ratified, incl. E.U. and Japan which make up 37.4% of
production in industrial countries
need countries responsible of > 50% to ratify
U.S. (25% of total CO2 and 36.4% of production in industrial countries)
major argument against ratification: "this would hurt national economy"
Russia (17.4%) and Poland (3%) initially pledged to ratify the protocol,
which would account for 57.8% of production
jeopardized when Russia bailed out in 2003, but ratified when it joined in
European Union and Brazil proposed phasing out fossil fuel burning;
Europe has increased the use of alternative energy (e.g. wind), while
Brazil has a strong biodiesel program
the Kyoto protocol is opposed by: fossil fuel industry oil-producing countries major fossil...
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This document was uploaded on 11/21/2013.
- Fall '08