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pheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing Chapter 2 ing and industrial processes
sed dust in the atmosphere.
osols include mineral dust rethe surface, sea salt aerosols,
issions from the land and
sulphate and dust aerosols
ing of Factors Affected by
utions to radiative forcing
he factors inﬂuenced by huare shown in Figure 2. The
e total forcing relative to the
ustrial era (about 1750). The
ll greenhouse gas increases,
best understood of those due
ities, are positive because each
going infrared radiation in the
mong the greenhouse gases,
ave caused the largest forcing
. Tropospheric ozone increasntributed to warming, while
zone decreases have contrib.
ticles inﬂuence radiative forcugh reﬂection and absorption
frared radiation in the atmorosols cause a positive forcing
use a negative forcing. The dircing summed over all aerosol
e. Aerosols also cause a negaorcing indirectly through the
use in cloud properties.
vities since the industrial era
e nature of land cover over
cipally through changes in
(continued) Figure 18.x Summary of the principal components of the radiative forcing of climate change.
AQ 2.1, Figure 2. ummary
AFadiative forcings resultSfrom one of the principal components of the and are associated climate change. All these
ll these radiative forcings result from one or forcing of with human activitiesaffect climate and are
more factors that or
or more factors that affect climate
natural processes as discussed in the text. The values represent the processes. The values represent the forcings in 2005
associated with human activity or naturalforcings in 2005 relative to the start of the
relativeera (about 1750). Human the industrial era (about any signiﬁcance between 1750 and
to the start of activities cause signiﬁcant changes in long-lived gases,Human activities cause significant
1750). ozone, water vapour,
surface albedo, aerosols and contrails. The only increase in natural forcing of
2005 occurred solar irradiance. gases, ozone, water vapor, negative forcings lead to a
changes ininlong-livedPositive forcings...
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- Fall '08