chapter18

Ing of factors affected by ties utions to radiative

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Unformatted text preview: cant. (source: RU) 
 12
 pheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing Chapter 2 ing and industrial processes sed dust in the atmosphere. osols include mineral dust rethe surface, sea salt aerosols, issions from the land and sulphate and dust aerosols volcanic eruptions. ing of Factors Affected by ties utions to radiative forcing he factors influenced by huare shown in Figure 2. The e total forcing relative to the ustrial era (about 1750). The ll greenhouse gas increases, best understood of those due ities, are positive because each going infrared radiation in the mong the greenhouse gases, ave caused the largest forcing . Tropospheric ozone increasntributed to warming, while zone decreases have contrib. ticles influence radiative forcugh reflection and absorption frared radiation in the atmorosols cause a positive forcing use a negative forcing. The dircing summed over all aerosol e. Aerosols also cause a negaorcing indirectly through the use in cloud properties. vities since the industrial era e nature of land cover over cipally through changes in (continued) Figure 18.x Summary of the principal components of the radiative forcing of climate change. AQ 2.1, Figure 2. ummary radiative AFadiative forcings resultSfrom one of the principal components of the and are associated climate change. All these ll these radiative forcings result from one or forcing of with human activitiesaffect climate and are more factors that or r or more factors that affect climate natural processes as discussed in the text. The values represent the processes. The values represent the forcings in 2005 associated with human activity or naturalforcings in 2005 relative to the start of the industrial relativeera (about 1750). Human the industrial era (about any significance between 1750 and to the start of activities cause significant changes in long-lived gases,Human activities cause significant 1750). ozone, water vapour, surface albedo, aerosols and contrails. The only increase in natural forcing of 2005 occurred solar irradiance. gases, ozone, water vapor, negative forcings lead to a changes ininlong-livedPositive forcings...
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